Presentation on theme: "C HAPTER 3 The Biosphere. W HAT IS ECOLOGY? Ecology: the scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment,"— Presentation transcript:
C HAPTER 3 The Biosphere
W HAT IS ECOLOGY? Ecology: the scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment, or surroundings.
Biosphere: the entire planet, including all of plants, animals as well as land water and air.
L EVELS OF O RGANIZATION R EVIEW Biosphere Biome Ecosystem Community Species
W HAT ELSE IS IN AN ECOSYSTEM?
BIOTIC F ACTORS The BIO-logical influences Every living thing that an organism may come into contact with Turtles, deer, and all other animals Ferns, trees and other plant life
ABIOTIC F ACTORS Physical or non-living factors These include things we see and things we don’t Temperature, nutrient availability, wind….
A PPLYING THE S CIENTIFIC M ETHOD How many white tailed deer live with in a 5 mile radius of the high school? What response would be produced in a corn snake population if the amount of mice was reduced in their community? Has continental drift effected the speciation of southern migratory birds?
DO NOW: Can you see the energy from the sun? Explain. Get out all supplies you need for class Notebook Highlighter Vocab sheet
P RODUCERS Make their own food Rely on energy obtained from their environment Sunlight Mineral water Aka AUTOTROPHS Auto: SELF Troph: NUTRITION
P HOTOSYNTHESIS Used by autotrophic organisms Photo- sun Synthesis- combination Light energy is used to power chemical reactions that create simple sugars Plants, Algae and some bacteria simple sugar
C HEMOSYNTHESIS Requires NO sunlight Chemical energy is used to produce simple sugars Energy comes from chemical bonds such as hydrogen sulfide (sewer gas)
E XTREMEOPHYLLS Main users of chemosynthesis Live in EXTREME environments Volcano Vents Deep inside caves
C ONSUMERS Rely on other organisms for energy Must eat (ingest) for energy needs Aka HETEROTROPHS Hetero: another or different Troph: nutrition
M EAT OR V EGGIES ? H OW ABOUT BOTH Carnivores: eat animals (meat) Herbivores: eat plant life Omnivores: eat both plant and animal life
S CAVENGERS & D ECOMPOSERS Scavengers: feed on dead plants and animals Includes earth worms, mites and snails Decomposers: break down organic matter Bacteria and fungi
Do Now: 1. Please get ready for class + get out your Macroinvertebrate lab (bug picking) 2.Organize the following organisms as,,, Red Tailed hawk FEEDS ON: mole and field mouse Garden Mole FEEDS ON: worms Damsel fly Field Mouse FEEDS ON: Grasses and insects Grass FEEDS ON: uses the SUN for photosynthesis Damsel fly larva FEEDS ON: other insects Oak leaves FEEDS ON: uses the SUN for photosynthesis Squirrel FEEDS ON: Acorns Worms FEEDS ON: fallen leaves ProducersHerbivoresOmnivoresCarnivores
Do Now: Please “Get ready for class” by getting your food chains out Red Tailed hawk Field Mouse Grass
DO NOW: What would happen if one of the organisms in your food web was removed?
W HAT HAPPENS TO THE SUN ’ S ENERGY ? The sun is the greatest source of energy in our universe Photosynthetic autotrophs make the best use of this energy Using light energy to power chemical reactions these producers are the start to almost all FOOD CHAINS on land and at sea.
FOOD CHAIN Represents the passing of energy from one organism to another Starts with producers energy is transferred as autotrophs are eaten The energy transfer continues as more animals enter the food chain.
IN YOUR NOTEBOOKS…. Discuss how… BIOTIC vs. ABIOTIC BIOTIC vs. BIOTIC ABIOTIC vs. ABIOTIC …factors affect each other in the movie.
T ROPHIC L EVELS Each link on a food chain is a separate TROPHIC LEVEL Producers are the first trophic level 3 Their consumers (herbivores) are in the 2 nd trophic level The 3 rd trophic level and up consists of omnivores and carnivores 2 1
Do Now: 1. Please get ready for class. (have your owl lab out) 2. Who is the most important organism in the food web
FOOD WEB A complex feeding relationship between the populations in an ecosystem. All food chains in an ecosystem are linked together by a food web.
E COLOGICAL P YRAMIDS Representation of energy or matter in each trophic level of an ecosystem Moving up trophic levels on a pyramid shows that only part of the energy or biomass is passed on to the next trophic level. Usually 10 % -10 % 1g 10g 100g
R ECYCLING M ATTERS Matter is not gained or lost It must be recycled within an ecosystem and between ecosystems Elements, chemical compound (H20) and other forms of matter follow BIOLOGICALCHEMICAL CYCLES
Do Now: 1. Please get ready for class. Ok so what is being collected today? (your owl lab out) Test Corrections Get ready for the Quiz.