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Unit Two – God’s Living Creation Chapter Five – Animal Classification.

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1 Unit Two – God’s Living Creation Chapter Five – Animal Classification

2 One of the most distinguishing characteristics of animals is whether or not they have backbones. Invertebrates – animals without backbones Vertebrates – animals with backbones

3 There are more invertebrates than vertebrates. 95% of animals are invertebrates. Scientists split invertebrates into smaller groups based on their unique characteristics.

4 Sponges The water goes through tiny pores (holes) in the outside of the sponge. When the water flows through the sponge, the sponge extracts nutrients and small organisms that it needs. Jellyfish Nematocysts – tiny stinging organelles used to capture food Sea anemones Corals The Great Barrier Reef is the largest coral reef system in the world.

5 Mollusks – animals that have soft bodies and mantles (special parts that form a shell) Snails, oysters, clams Bivalve – animal with two shells Clams, mussels, oysters Gastropods – “stomach footed” Univalve – animal with only one shell Snail

6 Slug – mollusk without a shell Nudibranchs – a type of slug found in the ocean Cephalopods – moves with a jetlike motion by forcing water through a tube in its body Squids, octopuses, chambered nautilus

7 Radial symmetry – equal parts radiate from the center The bodies of echinoderms are shaped like the spokes of a bicycle wheel. Each of the spokes is the same. All echinoderms live in water and move around by using thousands of little tube feet. Sea stars (starfish), sea urchins, sand dollars Filter feeders – eat whatever comes floating through the water

8 Characteristics of Echinoderms Have hard skeletons Protect themselves in different ways Spines on their bodies Hide in cracks Use camouflage Break off its own arm and grow another

9 Bilateral symmetry – can be divided down the middle and be the same on each side Flatworms are either: Parasitic – live on or in other living organisms (hosts); depend on their hosts for nourishment Free-living – independent of other organisms Planarians

10 Smooth and round Can be parasites or free-living Roundworms help decompose dead organisms, and therefore, help fertilize the soil.

11 Annelid – segmented worm Segments – similar pieces Setae – hairlike structures that worms use to move Leeches Suck blood only from the outside

12 Sea worms Earthworms Burrow around and make holes for air to get into the soil The air helps plants in the soil to grow. Break down complex plant matter into nutrients that the plants around it can use.

13 Arthropod – “jointed foot” Jointed legs and segmented bodies Exoskeleton – an outer hard covering that protects the animal Molt – a process of shedding the exoskeleton in order to grow a new one and continue growing

14 Shrimp, lobsters, crabs Characteristics of crustaceans Have at least five pairs of jointed legs Breathe through gills Have some sort of claw

15 Arachnids – have eight legs and two body segments Spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites Ticks Parasitic Use animals and humans as hosts Their bites can spread diseases such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Lyme disease Spiders Most familiar arachnids Spinnerets – silk-spinning organs in the back of spiders

16 Have many body segments and many legs

17 Have three body segments Head, thorax, abdomen Have three pairs of legs Have two pairs of wings Mouthparts Beetles – chewing mouthparts Mosquitoes – piercing and sucking mouthparts Butterflies & Moths – siphoning mouthparts

18 Metamorphosis – the process where an insect becomes an adult Two types of metamorphosis Incomplete metamorphosis – three stages Eggs, nymph, adult Complete metamorphosis – four stages Egg, larva, pupa, adult

19 Bible Integration Proverbs 30:25-28 Even God’s animals behave in such a way that glorifies God. We choose our behavior. Shouldn’t it be one that honors God?!

20 Invertebrates make up most of the species of the animal kingdom. Vertebrates make up most of the size of the animal kingdom. Vertebrates are able to grow larger than invertebrates because their backbone gives support for their greater weight. Groups used to classify vertebrates Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals

21 All breathe through gills Cold-blooded – find warmth or coolness from their environments Grouped based on their skeletons – cartilage or bone

22 Sharks, rays, and skates Cartilage – bonelike substance, but softer and more bendable than bone Have skeletons that are stronger and harder than cartilage fish Bluegill, bass, trout, seahorse, eel

23 Cold-blooded “Double life” – part in the water and part on land Stages of frog metamorphosis Egg – lay eggs in water Larva – some eggs hatch into tadpoles At the end of the larval stage, they lose their gills, grow legs, and move onto land Adult

24 Frogs Smooth skin Always live near water Large, powerful hind legs for jumping Lay their eggs in clusters Toads Short legs – hop short distances Nubby skin that makes them look like they have warts Lay their eggs in long chains

25 Cold-blooded Have scaly skin that allows them to live in areas away from water Three major groups Turtles, lizards and snakes, and crocodilians

26 Clearly identified by its unique skeletal structure Omnivores – eating both plants and animals Herbivores – eating only plants Tortoises – high, domed shells

27 Lizards Look like salamanders (amphibians), but belong to reptile group Snakes Carnivores – eat only animals Swallow their meals whole Upper and lower jaws that are not tightly attached Can swallow prey that is larger than the diameter of their own bodies

28 Alligators, caimans, crocodiles Scaly skin, large bodies, short legs

29 Birds are birds b/c they have feathers Feathers assist in flight, protect them from the water they swim in and provide needed warmth Birds that fly have very lightweight skeletons. Their bones are very hard, but they contain hollow, air-filled cavities God has given each bird the perfect beak for the food it eats Warm-blooded – having body temps that stay the same, regardless of their environment

30 All have hair or fur Warm-blooded Most bear live young All feed their young with milk from the mother’s body All have a four-chambered heart Have three ear bones All breathe using lungs

31 Monotremes – lay eggs Have pouches where their babies grow big enough to function

32 Rodents Mice, rats, squirrels, beavers, porcupines Have large front teeth that never stop growing Rabbits Teeth form differently than the rodent Moles Insectivores – eat insects as their primary food

33 Only mammals that can fly Nocturnal – come out at night Echolocation – a technique used by bats in order for them to know where they are Bats make high frequency clicks that bounce off objects. The bats judge the distance to the object by the time it takes the sound to return.

34 Two groups Those with odd number of toes on each hoof Horses, zebras, burros, mules Those with even number of toes on each hoof “Cloven hoof” Deer, giraffes, camels, cattle, sheep, antelope, hippopotamus

35 Meat-eaters Cats Have retractable claws – the claws disappear into its paw when it does not need them for hunting or climbing Prides – group of lions Lions, cougars, tigers, jaguars Dogs

36 Pinnipeds Seals, walruses, sea lions Primary food is fish, though they will eat mollusks, crustaceans, and even penguins Can live in the ocean and on land

37 Whales Blubber – fatty substance, rich in oil, that insulates whales against the cold Baleen whales Instead of teeth, they have giant plates, called baleen plates, that help them gather plankton and tiny crustaceans (krill) Pods – groups of whales Toothed whales Dolphins, porpoises, orcas, sperm whales Use echolocation (like bats)

38 Have good eyesight Have “hands” that can grasp Two groups Lemurs Monkeys New World Monkeys – spend much of their time in trees Old World Monkeys – spend much of their time on the ground

39 Genesis 1:24-27, 2:7 One difference between man and animals is that God gave man a soul. Man was created separately from the rest of creation and was formed in the likeness and image of God.

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