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Chapter 29 The Animal Kingdom The Protostomes Invertebrates Video.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 29 The Animal Kingdom The Protostomes Invertebrates Video."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 29 The Animal Kingdom The Protostomes Invertebrates Video

2 Coelom Fluid-filled space lined w/mesoderm; between digestive tube and outer body wall Tube-within-a-tube plan Inner tube no longer attached to body wall

3 Advantages of Coelom Can serve as hydrostatic skeleton (fluid under pressure) – Contracting muscles push against tube of fluid – Greater range of movement – Swim, crawl, walk Space, cushion for internal organs, gonads Transport of food, O2, waste

4 Phylum Nemertea Ribbon worms, proboscis worms Proboscis = long, hollow muscular tube – Can be everted from anterior end of body – Wrap around prey – Sharp, sticky or toxic Functionally acoelomate (chamber around proboscis is true coelomic space = rhynchocoel) Circulatory system – blood vessels, no heart

5 Fig. 33-3l A ribbon worm

6 Phylum Mollusca Clams, oysters, octopods, snails, slugs, giant squid Basic characteristics – Soft body – usually covered by shell – Foot – locomotion – Visceral mass – above foot – Mantle – cover visceral mass – Radula – rasplike, belt of teeth – Coelom – reduced, small around certain organs Hemocoel - blood

7 Fig Nephridium Visceral mass Coelom Mantle cavity Heart Intestine Gonads Stomach Shell Radula Mouth Esophagus Nerve cords Foot Gill Anus Mouth Radula

8 Phylum Mollusca Digestive – Mouth, buccal cavity, esophagus, stomach, intestine, anus – Radula in buccal cavity Circulatory – open (most) – Blood = hemolymph – bathes tissues – Heart – aorta – blood vessels – sinuses (make up hemocoel) – blood vessels – gills – heart – Closed system – active squid, octopods Blood in blood vessels completely

9 Phylum Mollusca Excretory – Metanephridia – funnels waste from fluid in coelom to excretory pore

10 4 Classes of Mollusks 1. Polyplacophora – “many plates” – Chitons – Shell of 8 dorsal plates, head reduced, no eyes or tentacles 2. Gastropoda – Well-developed head w/tentacles, 2 simple eyes, foot – Torsion – twist visceral mass; allows head to enter shell 1 st before foot – Snails – single, spiral coiled shell – Limpets – shells like flat dunce cap – Nudibranchs (sea slug) – no shell

11 Fig

12 Fig (a) A land snail (b) A sea slug

13 Fig Mouth Anus Mantle cavity Stomach Intestine

14 Nudibranch (Sea slug)

15 3. Bivalvia – Clams, oysters, mussels, scallops – 2 part shell – Nervous – 3 pair ganglia, 2 pair nerve cords – Eyespots – Suspension feeders – water in through siphon (no radula)

16 Fig

17 Fig Mouth Digestive gland Mantle Hinge area Gut Coelom HeartAdductor muscle Anus Excurrent siphon Water flow Incurrent siphon Gill Gonad Mantle cavity Foot Palp Shell

18 4. Cephalopoda – “head foot” – Swim fast, predators – Mouth w/tentacles (suckers to seize prey) – Radula + 2 beaks – Mantle has siphon – Jet propulsion – Head – well-developed eyes – Octopus – no shell – Squid – reduced shell inside body – Nautilus – coiled shell – Defense Chromatophores – change color Ink sac – black liquid

19 Fig Octopus Squid Chambered nautilus

20 Phylum Annelida – “ringed” Segmented worms – Facilitates locomotion – Coelom divided – each segment own muscles – Setae – bristle-like structures - traction Bilateral symmetry Tubular body Nervous – Simple brain (paired ganglia) + ventral nerve cord – Each seg. = pair ganglia + lateral nerves

21 Phylum Annelida Closed circulatory system Complete digestive tract – Mouth - anus Respiration – cutaneous Excretion – Pair metanephridia in each segment

22 Class Polychaeta – “many bristles” Marine Parapodia – pair of paddle-shaped appendages on each body segment – Locomotion, gas exchange, bear setae Head w/eyes and antennae Optional – tentacles, palps Separate sexes – Gametes in water same time (lunar, tides)

23 Fig Parapodia

24 Tubeworms - Polychaetes

25 Class Oligochaeta – few bristles Fresh water/terrestrial No parapodia, few bristles Lack well-developed head Hermaphrodites

26 Class Oligochaeta - Lumbricus terrestris Cuticle Mucus layer Muscles in body wall Relationship with soil Complex digestive system – Pharynx – esophagus – crop (store) – gizzard (grind) – intestine (digest, absorb) – anus Circulatory system – closed – Dorsal and ventral BV; BV in segments – 5 pair BV by esophagus

27 Earthworm Locomotion

28 Class Oligochaeta - Lumbricus terrestris Gas exchange – Moist skin Excretion – Paired metanephridia – almost every segment Nervous – Simple brain (pair cerebral ganglia above pharynx and subpharyngeal ganglia below pharynx) – Ventral nerve cord – Pair fused ganglia – each segment – coordinate muscles

29 Class Oligochaeta - Lumbricus terrestris Reproduction – Hermaphroditic – 2 worms exchange sperms – Clitellum - ring of epidermis, secretion

30 Fig Epidermis Circular muscle Longitudinal muscle Dorsal vessel Chaetae Intestine Nephrostome Fused nerve cords Ventral vessel Metanephridium Septum (partition between segments) Coelom Cuticle Anus Metanephridium Crop Intestine Gizzard Ventral nerve cord with segmental ganglia Blood vessels Subpharyngeal ganglion Mouth Cerebral ganglia Pharynx Esophagus Clitellum Giant Australian earthworm

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33 Class Hirudinea - leeches Blood-sucking parasites (some nonparasitic) – Suck out blood and store in digestive tract – Hirudin – anticoagulant – from crop; ensures full meal No setae or parapodia Muscular suckers both body ends

34 Fig

35 Lophophorate phyla Ring of tentacles around mouth for capturing particles in water

36 Fig Lophophore (a) Ectoproct (sea mat) Lophophore (b) Brachiopods

37 Phylum Rotifera “wheel animals” Crown of cilia on anterior end – Beat rapidly – swim / feed

38 Fig Jaws Crown of cilia Anus Stomach 0.1 mm

39 Phylum Nematoda - roundworms Decomposition, nutrient recyclers Free-living; parasites Body – point both ends, cuticle Epidermis unusual – no composed of distinct cells Pseudocoelom – fluid – muscle contraction, nutrient distribution Bilateral symmetry

40 Fig µm

41 Phylum Nematoda Complete digestive system – 3 tissue layers Lack specific circulatory parts Sexes usually separate No well-define head

42 Crawling Nematode

43 Examples of Nematodes Ascaris – intestinal human parasite – Eggs in feces – Poor sanitation – eggs  soil (fertilizer) – Ingest eggs on unwashed fruit/veg. OR hands Hookworm – lining human intestine, suck blood – Eggs – feces – host barefoot – larvae into skin / blood Trichina – small intestine mammals – Undercooked, infected meat – Encyst in skeletal muscle; cysts calcify Pinworm - large intestine, kids – Eggs ingested – dirty hands – Female worms – anal region – deposit eggs - itching

44 Fig Encysted juveniles Muscle tissue 50 µm

45 Phylum Arthropoda - “jointed foot” – very successful Segmented body – specialization Exoskeleton – chitin + protein – Protection, water loss, molting (disadvantage) Paired, jointed appendages – Swim, walk, get prey, sensory, reproduction Nervous system – sense organs – Antennae, eyes, ganglia Open circulatory system - hemocoel

46 Phylum Arthropoda Gas exchange – Water – gills – Land – tracheal tubes, book lungs

47 Onychophorans - “missing link” between annelids and arthropods; “velvet worms” Like Annelids – Internal segments Like Arthropods – Open circulation – Tracheal tubes – Unbranched legs – Jaws from appendages

48 3 Subphyla of Arthropods: Subphylum Chelicerata Horseshoe crabs, arachnids No antennae Chelicerae (1 st pair) – fanglike feeding appendages Body = cephalothorax + abdomen Pedipalps (2 nd pair) = locomotion, food, defense or copulation 4 pair legs on cephalothorax - walking

49 Fig. 33-3r An onychophoran

50 Subphylum Chelicerata – Horseshoe Crabs Living fossil Tail for locomotion 5 pair walking legs

51 Fig

52 Subphylum Chelicerata - Arachnids Spiders, scorpions, ticks, harvestmen, mites Most carnivorous 6 pair jointed appendages

53 Fig Scorpion Dust mite Web-building spider 50 µm

54 Arachnids - Spiders 1 st pair – chelicerae – penetrate prey 2 nd pair – pedipalps – hold, chew food Next 4 pairs – walking 8 eyes – 2 rows, 4 each Gas exchange – Tracheal tubes, book lungs or both Glands – abdomen – silk (spinnerets) All spiders – poison glands (few toxic to humans)

55 Fig Intestine Heart Digestive gland Ovary Anus Spinnerets Silk gland Gonopore (exit for eggs) Sperm receptacle Book lung Chelicera Pedipalp Poison gland Eyes Brain Stomach

56 Arachnids - Mites and Ticks Nuisance – Eat crops, infest livestock, pets, us – disease Mites – chiggers – red itchy welts Ticks – Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Texas cattle fever, relapsing fever, Lyme disease

57 Trilobites Early arthropod – extinct now 3 lobes of exoskeleton Led to chelicerates

58 Fig

59 Subphylum Crustacea Lobsters, crabs, shrimp, barnacles – Consume algae detritus – Compose much zooplankton Mandibles – jaw like, no chelicerae – Hard, 3 rd pair appendages, sides of mouth, bite/grind food Biramous appendages – 2 jointed branches 2 pair antennae (sensory) Nauplius larva – 1 st stage after hatching; has only most anterior 3 pair of appendages 1 st and 2 nd Maxillae – after mandibles; 2 pair; manipulate, hold food Other appendages – walk, swim, transmit sperm, carry eggs/young/sense

60 Subphylum Crustacea Gas exchange - gills Excretion – 2 large antennal (green) glands Compound eyes Statocysts – detect gravity Reproduction - separate sexes – Male sperm to female; fertilized egg carried on female – New animals – resemble adult or many larval stages w/molting

61 Orders of Subphylum Crustacea Isopods – pill bugs, sowbugs (5-15 mm) Copepods – zooplankton (microscopic) Decapods – lobster, crayfish, crab, shrimp

62 Fig (a) Ghost crab (b) Krill(c) Barnacles

63 Fig Cephalothorax Antennae (sensory reception) Head Thorax Abdomen Swimming appendages (one pair located under each abdominal segment) Walking legs Mouthparts (feeding) Pincer (defense)

64 Lobster Anatomy – a decapod crustacean Carapace – Covers cephalothorax – Chitin w/ calcium salts Antennae – 2 pair – sensory Mandibles – 1 pair – Bite/grind food Maxillae – 2 pair – feeding Maxillipeds – 3 pair – Chop food, pass to mouth

65 Lobster Anatomy – a decapod crustacean Chelipeds – 1 pair – Pinching claws Walking legs – 4 pair Reproductive appendages – Male – sperm transfer Swimmerets – Small, paddle like – swim, hold eggs Uropods – Large, flattened structure Telson – Flattened posterior end of abdomen Uropod + telson – fan –shape; swim backward

66 Lobster Mouth

67 Subphylum Uniramia Insects, centipedes, millipedes Uniramous appendages – unbranched 1 pair antennae Jawlike mandibles

68 Class Insecta of Subphylum Uniramia Most successful animals – Diverse, geographic distribution, # species, # individuals Articulated = jointed Tracheated = having tracheal tubes (gas exchange) Hexapod – have 6 feet

69 Class Insecta Body – 3 distinct parts – Head 1 pair antennae Simple OR compound eyes (sensory) Mouthparts – piercing, chewing, sucking, lapping – Thorax 3 pair legs, 1-2 pair wings – Abdomen

70 Fig AbdomenThoraxHead Compound eye Antennae Heart Dorsal artery Crop Cerebral ganglion Mouthparts Nerve cords Tracheal tubes Ovary Malpighian tubules Vagina Anus

71 Class Insecta Tracheal system – Spiracles = opening in body wall, air enters – Spiracles – tracheal tubes – internal organs Open circulation Excretion – 2+ Malpighian tubules – receive waste from blood, concentrate waste, discharge to intestine; conserve water

72 Class Insecta Reproduction – Separate sexes – Internal fertilization – Direct development (hatch as small adult) OR – Molt during development  metamorphosis Incomplete metamorphosis – Egg – larva – adult – Grasshopper, cockroach Complete metamorphosis – 4 stages – Egg – larva – pupa – adult – Butterfly, bee, flea Exoskeleton – water loss, protection Flight

73 Fig (a) Larva (caterpillar) (b) Pupa (c) Later-stage pupa (d) Emerging adult (e) Adult

74 Butterfly Metamorphosis

75 Class Insecta – Impact on Humans Good Pollination Destroy harmful insects Food webs Nutrient recyclers Products – Honey, beeswax, shellac, silk Bad Destroy crops, buildings, clothing disease

76 Class Chilopoda - centipedes “hundred-legged” 1 pair legs/segment (average 30 total) – Long = fast Uniramous appendages carnivorous

77 Fig

78 Class Diplopoda - millipedes “thousand-legged” 2 pair legs/segment – slow herbivorous

79 Fig

80 Both Chilopoda and Diplopoda Terrestrial Head + elongated trunk – Many segments – Uniramous legs

81 Fig a

82 Fig b

83 Fig c

84 Fig d

85 Fig e

86 Match the Order of Insect with the Correct Example Order Thysanura Orthoptera Isoptera Odonata Hemiptera Anoplura Example Sucking lice Grasshopper Damselfly Chinch bug Silverfish termite

87 Match the Order of Insect with the Correct Example Order Syphonaptera Homoptera Diptera Lepidoptera Hymenoptera coleoptera Example Moth Aphid Ant Housefly Beetle flea


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