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The Animal Kingdom The Protostomes Invertebrates Video

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1 The Animal Kingdom The Protostomes Invertebrates Video
Chapter 29 The Animal Kingdom The Protostomes Invertebrates Video

2 Coelom Fluid-filled space lined w/mesoderm; between digestive tube and outer body wall Tube-within-a-tube plan Inner tube no longer attached to body wall

3 Advantages of Coelom Can serve as hydrostatic skeleton (fluid under pressure) Contracting muscles push against tube of fluid Greater range of movement Swim, crawl, walk Space, cushion for internal organs, gonads Transport of food, O2, waste

4 Phylum Nemertea Ribbon worms, proboscis worms
Proboscis = long, hollow muscular tube Can be everted from anterior end of body Wrap around prey Sharp, sticky or toxic Functionally acoelomate (chamber around proboscis is true coelomic space = rhynchocoel) Circulatory system – blood vessels, no heart

5 Fig. 33-3l Figure 33.3 Invertebrate diversity A ribbon worm

6 Phylum Mollusca Clams, oysters, octopods, snails, slugs, giant squid
Basic characteristics Soft body – usually covered by shell Foot – locomotion Visceral mass – above foot Mantle – cover visceral mass Radula – rasplike, belt of teeth Coelom – reduced, small around certain organs Hemocoel - blood

7 Nephridium Visceral mass Heart Coelom Intestine Gonads Mantle Stomach
Fig Nephridium Visceral mass Heart Coelom Intestine Gonads Mantle Stomach Mantle cavity Shell Mouth Radula Anus Gill Figure The basic body plan of a mollusc Radula Mouth Nerve cords Foot Esophagus

8 Phylum Mollusca Digestive Circulatory – open (most)
Mouth, buccal cavity, esophagus, stomach, intestine, anus Radula in buccal cavity Circulatory – open (most) Blood = hemolymph – bathes tissues Heart – aorta – blood vessels – sinuses (make up hemocoel) – blood vessels – gills – heart Closed system – active squid, octopods Blood in blood vessels completely

9 Phylum Mollusca Excretory
Metanephridia – funnels waste from fluid in coelom to excretory pore

10 4 Classes of Mollusks 1. Polyplacophora – “many plates” 2. Gastropoda
Chitons Shell of 8 dorsal plates, head reduced, no eyes or tentacles 2. Gastropoda Well-developed head w/tentacles, 2 simple eyes, foot Torsion – twist visceral mass; allows head to enter shell 1st before foot Snails – single, spiral coiled shell Limpets – shells like flat dunce cap Nudibranchs (sea slug) – no shell

11 Fig Figure A chiton

12 Fig (a) A land snail Figure Gastropods (b) A sea slug

13 Mantle cavity Stomach Intestine Anus Mouth Fig. 33-18
Figure The results of torsion in a gastropod

14 Nudibranch (Sea slug)

15 3. Bivalvia Clams, oysters, mussels, scallops 2 part shell
Nervous – 3 pair ganglia, 2 pair nerve cords Eyespots Suspension feeders – water in through siphon (no radula)

16 Fig Figure A bivalve

17 Coelom Hinge area Mantle Gut Heart Adductor muscle Digestive gland
Fig Coelom Hinge area Mantle Gut Heart Adductor muscle Digestive gland Anus Mouth Excurrent siphon Figure Anatomy of a clam Shell Water flow Palp Foot Incurrent siphon Mantle cavity Gonad Gill

18 4. Cephalopoda – “head foot”
Swim fast, predators Mouth w/tentacles (suckers to seize prey) Radula + 2 beaks Mantle has siphon Jet propulsion Head – well-developed eyes Octopus – no shell Squid – reduced shell inside body Nautilus – coiled shell Defense Chromatophores – change color Ink sac – black liquid

19 Fig Octopus Squid Figure Cephalopods Chambered nautilus

20 Phylum Annelida – “ringed”
Segmented worms Facilitates locomotion Coelom divided – each segment own muscles Setae – bristle-like structures - traction Bilateral symmetry Tubular body Nervous Simple brain (paired ganglia) + ventral nerve cord Each seg. = pair ganglia + lateral nerves

21 Phylum Annelida Closed circulatory system Complete digestive tract
Mouth - anus Respiration cutaneous Excretion Pair metanephridia in each segment

22 Class Polychaeta – “many bristles”
Marine Parapodia – pair of paddle-shaped appendages on each body segment Locomotion, gas exchange, bear setae Head w/eyes and antennae Optional – tentacles, palps Separate sexes Gametes in water same time (lunar, tides)

23 Fig Figure A polychaete Parapodia

24 Tubeworms - Polychaetes

25 Class Oligochaeta – few bristles
Fresh water/terrestrial No parapodia, few bristles Lack well-developed head Hermaphrodites

26 Class Oligochaeta - Lumbricus terrestris
Cuticle Mucus layer Muscles in body wall Relationship with soil Complex digestive system Pharynx – esophagus – crop (store) – gizzard (grind) – intestine (digest, absorb) – anus Circulatory system – closed Dorsal and ventral BV; BV in segments 5 pair BV by esophagus

27 Earthworm Locomotion

28 Class Oligochaeta - Lumbricus terrestris
Gas exchange Moist skin Excretion Paired metanephridia – almost every segment Nervous Simple brain (pair cerebral ganglia above pharynx and subpharyngeal ganglia below pharynx) Ventral nerve cord Pair fused ganglia – each segment – coordinate muscles

29 Class Oligochaeta - Lumbricus terrestris
Reproduction Hermaphroditic 2 worms exchange sperms Clitellum - ring of epidermis, secretion

30 Giant Australian earthworm Pharynx Intestine
Fig Cuticle Septum (partition between segments) Epidermis Coelom Circular muscle Metanephridium Longitudinal muscle Anus Dorsal vessel Chaetae Intestine Fused nerve cords Ventral vessel Nephrostome Metanephridium Clitellum Figure Anatomy of an earthworm, an oligochaete Esophagus Crop Giant Australian earthworm Pharynx Intestine Cerebral ganglia Gizzard Mouth Ventral nerve cord with segmental ganglia Subpharyngeal ganglion Blood vessels

31

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33 Class Hirudinea - leeches
Blood-sucking parasites (some nonparasitic) Suck out blood and store in digestive tract Hirudin – anticoagulant – from crop; ensures full meal No setae or parapodia Muscular suckers both body ends

34 Fig Figure A leech

35 Lophophorate phyla Ring of tentacles around mouth for capturing particles in water

36 (a) Ectoproct (sea mat) (b) Brachiopods
Fig Lophophore Lophophore Figure Lophophorates (a) Ectoproct (sea mat) (b) Brachiopods

37 Phylum Rotifera “wheel animals” Crown of cilia on anterior end
Beat rapidly – swim / feed

38 Jaws Crown of cilia Anus Stomach 0.1 mm Fig. 33-13
Figure A rotifer Anus Stomach 0.1 mm

39 Phylum Nematoda - roundworms
Decomposition, nutrient recyclers Free-living; parasites Body – point both ends, cuticle Epidermis unusual – no composed of distinct cells Pseudocoelom – fluid – muscle contraction, nutrient distribution Bilateral symmetry

40 Fig Figure A free-living nematode (colorized SEM) 25 µm

41 Phylum Nematoda Complete digestive system – 3 tissue layers
Lack specific circulatory parts Sexes usually separate No well-define head

42 Crawling Nematode

43 Examples of Nematodes Ascaris – intestinal human parasite
Eggs in feces Poor sanitation – eggs  soil (fertilizer) Ingest eggs on unwashed fruit/veg. OR hands Hookworm – lining human intestine, suck blood Eggs – feces – host barefoot – larvae into skin / blood Trichina – small intestine mammals Undercooked, infected meat Encyst in skeletal muscle; cysts calcify Pinworm - large intestine, kids Eggs ingested – dirty hands Female worms – anal region – deposit eggs - itching

44 Encysted juveniles Muscle tissue 50 µm Fig. 33-26
Figure Juveniles of the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis encysted in human muscle tissue (LM)

45 Phylum Arthropoda - “jointed foot” – very successful
Segmented body – specialization Exoskeleton – chitin + protein Protection, water loss, molting (disadvantage) Paired, jointed appendages Swim, walk, get prey, sensory, reproduction Nervous system – sense organs Antennae, eyes, ganglia Open circulatory system - hemocoel

46 Phylum Arthropoda Gas exchange Water – gills
Land – tracheal tubes, book lungs

47 Onychophorans - “missing link” between annelids and arthropods; “velvet worms”
Like Annelids Internal segments Like Arthropods Open circulation Tracheal tubes Unbranched legs Jaws from appendages

48 3 Subphyla of Arthropods: Subphylum Chelicerata
Horseshoe crabs, arachnids No antennae Chelicerae (1st pair) – fanglike feeding appendages Body = cephalothorax + abdomen Pedipalps (2nd pair) = locomotion, food, defense or copulation 4 pair legs on cephalothorax - walking

49 Fig. 33-3r Figure 33.3 Invertebrate diversity An onychophoran

50 Subphylum Chelicerata – Horseshoe Crabs
Living fossil Tail for locomotion 5 pair walking legs

51 Fig Figure Horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus)

52 Subphylum Chelicerata - Arachnids
Spiders, scorpions, ticks, harvestmen, mites Most carnivorous 6 pair jointed appendages

53 Scorpion Dust mite Web-building spider 50 µm Fig. 33-31
Figure Arachnids Web-building spider

54 Arachnids - Spiders 1st pair – chelicerae – penetrate prey
2nd pair – pedipalps – hold, chew food Next 4 pairs – walking 8 eyes – 2 rows, 4 each Gas exchange Tracheal tubes, book lungs or both Glands – abdomen – silk (spinnerets) All spiders – poison glands (few toxic to humans)

55 Stomach Intestine Heart Brain Digestive gland Eyes Ovary Poison gland
Fig Stomach Intestine Heart Brain Digestive gland Eyes Ovary Poison gland Figure Anatomy of a spider Book lung Anus Gonopore (exit for eggs) Chelicera Pedipalp Spinnerets Sperm receptacle Silk gland

56 Arachnids - Mites and Ticks
Nuisance Eat crops, infest livestock, pets, us disease Mites chiggers – red itchy welts Ticks Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Texas cattle fever, relapsing fever, Lyme disease

57 Trilobites Early arthropod – extinct now 3 lobes of exoskeleton
Led to chelicerates

58 Fig Figure A trilobite fossil

59 Subphylum Crustacea Lobsters, crabs, shrimp, barnacles
Consume algae detritus Compose much zooplankton Mandibles – jaw like, no chelicerae Hard, 3rd pair appendages, sides of mouth, bite/grind food Biramous appendages – 2 jointed branches 2 pair antennae (sensory) Nauplius larva – 1st stage after hatching; has only most anterior 3 pair of appendages 1st and 2nd Maxillae – after mandibles; 2 pair; manipulate, hold food Other appendages – walk, swim, transmit sperm, carry eggs/young/sense

60 Subphylum Crustacea Gas exchange - gills
Excretion – 2 large antennal (green) glands Compound eyes Statocysts – detect gravity Reproduction - separate sexes Male sperm to female; fertilized egg carried on female New animals – resemble adult or many larval stages w/molting

61 Orders of Subphylum Crustacea
Isopods – pill bugs, sowbugs (5-15 mm) Copepods – zooplankton (microscopic) Decapods – lobster, crayfish, crab, shrimp

62 (a) Ghost crab (b) Krill (c) Barnacles Fig. 33-38
Figure Crustaceans (b) Krill (c) Barnacles

63 Cephalothorax Abdomen Antennae (sensory reception) Thorax Head
Fig Cephalothorax Abdomen Antennae (sensory reception) Thorax Head Swimming appendages (one pair located under each abdominal segment) Figure External anatomy of an arthropod Walking legs Pincer (defense) Mouthparts (feeding)

64 Lobster Anatomy – a decapod crustacean
Carapace Covers cephalothorax Chitin w/ calcium salts Antennae – 2 pair sensory Mandibles – 1 pair Bite/grind food Maxillae – 2 pair feeding Maxillipeds – 3 pair Chop food, pass to mouth

65 Lobster Anatomy – a decapod crustacean
Chelipeds – 1 pair Pinching claws Walking legs – 4 pair Reproductive appendages Male – sperm transfer Swimmerets Small, paddle like – swim, hold eggs Uropods Large, flattened structure Telson Flattened posterior end of abdomen Uropod + telson – fan –shape; swim backward

66 Lobster Mouth

67 Subphylum Uniramia Insects, centipedes, millipedes
Uniramous appendages – unbranched 1 pair antennae Jawlike mandibles

68 Class Insecta of Subphylum Uniramia
Most successful animals Diverse, geographic distribution, # species, # individuals Articulated = jointed Tracheated = having tracheal tubes (gas exchange) Hexapod – have 6 feet

69 Class Insecta Body – 3 distinct parts Head Thorax Abdomen
1 pair antennae Simple OR compound eyes (sensory) Mouthparts – piercing, chewing, sucking, lapping Thorax 3 pair legs, 1-2 pair wings Abdomen

70 Abdomen Thorax Head Compound eye Antennae Heart Cerebral ganglion
Fig Abdomen Thorax Head Compound eye Antennae Heart Cerebral ganglion Dorsal artery Crop Anus Vagina Figure Anatomy of a grasshopper, an insect Malpighian tubules Ovary Tracheal tubes Mouthparts Nerve cords

71 Class Insecta Tracheal system Open circulation Excretion
Spiracles = opening in body wall, air enters Spiracles – tracheal tubes – internal organs Open circulation Excretion 2+ Malpighian tubules – receive waste from blood, concentrate waste, discharge to intestine; conserve water

72 Class Insecta Reproduction Exoskeleton – water loss, protection Flight
Separate sexes Internal fertilization Direct development (hatch as small adult) OR Molt during development  metamorphosis Incomplete metamorphosis Egg – larva – adult Grasshopper, cockroach Complete metamorphosis – 4 stages Egg – larva – pupa – adult Butterfly, bee, flea Exoskeleton – water loss, protection Flight

73 (a) Larva (caterpillar) (b) Pupa (c) Later-stage pupa (d) Emerging
Fig (a) Larva (caterpillar) (b) Pupa (c) Later-stage pupa Figure Metamorphosis of a butterfly (d) Emerging adult (e) Adult

74 Butterfly Metamorphosis

75 Class Insecta – Impact on Humans
Good Bad Pollination Destroy harmful insects Food webs Nutrient recyclers Products Honey, beeswax, shellac, silk Destroy crops, buildings, clothing disease

76 Class Chilopoda - centipedes
“hundred-legged” 1 pair legs/segment (average 30 total) Long = fast Uniramous appendages carnivorous

77 Fig Figure A centipede

78 Class Diplopoda - millipedes
“thousand-legged” 2 pair legs/segment slow herbivorous

79 Fig Figure A millipede

80 Both Chilopoda and Diplopoda
Terrestrial Head + elongated trunk Many segments Uniramous legs

81 Fig a Figure Insect diversity

82 Fig b Figure Insect diversity

83 Fig c Figure Insect diversity

84 Fig d Figure Insect diversity

85 Fig e Figure Insect diversity

86 Match the Order of Insect with the Correct Example
Thysanura Orthoptera Isoptera Odonata Hemiptera Anoplura Sucking lice Grasshopper Damselfly Chinch bug Silverfish termite

87 Match the Order of Insect with the Correct Example
Syphonaptera Homoptera Diptera Lepidoptera Hymenoptera coleoptera Moth Aphid Ant Housefly Beetle flea


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