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Evolutionary Classification

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Presentation on theme: "Evolutionary Classification"— Presentation transcript:

1 Evolutionary Classification
Sz2- Students will explain the evolutionary history of animals over the geologic history of Earth. Evolutionary Classification

2 Geologic History Geologic time- time that began when earth was formed until present day


4 Evolution of the Earth with Time: Continental Drift
50 Million Years Ago 200 Million Years Ago 150 Million Years Ago 100 Million Years Ago Present

5 Important Terms Evolution- gradual change in a species over time- sci. theory Theory-well-tested explanation that explains a wide range of observations. Adaptation- any trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce

6 Natural Selection- the process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce. Charles Darwin

7 Natural Selection cont.
Over a long time, natural selection can modify a population enough to produce a new species Helpful variations accumulate in a species while unfavorable ones disappear.

8 Speciation Pangaea /Continental Drift
When a group of individuals remain separated from the rest of the species long enough to evolve different traits HOW this happens- Pangaea /Continental Drift Landform isolation- river, mountain, water. (ex. Squirrels of N. Grand Canyon) Australia

9 A Problem with Traditional Classification
Traditional classification systems relied on body structure comparisons only Due to convergent evolution, organisms that are quite different from each other evolve similar body structures. Convergent Evolution: Process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments.

10 A Problem with Traditional Classification
Example: The Crab, The barnacle, & The limpet The barnacle and the limpet have similarly shaped shells & look alike The crab has a very different body form Based on anatomy, the barnacle & limpet could be classified together and the crab in a different group.

11 This incorrect because crabs and barnacles are actually related

12 Traditional Classification Versus Cladogram TRADITIONAL CLASSIFICATION
Section 18-2 Appendages Conical Shells Crustaceans Gastropod Crab Barnacle Limpet Crab Barnacle Limpet Molted exoskeleton Segmentation Tiny free-swimming larva TRADITIONAL CLASSIFICATION CLADOGRAM Go to Section:

13 Segmentation Free swimming Larva
Crustaceans Gastropods Molted Exoskeleton Even though they do not look a like, crabs & barnacles are actually related Segmentation Free swimming Larva

14 Evolutionary Classification
Biologists now group organisms into categories that represent lines of evolutionary descent, not just physical similarities Evolution Classification: Is the strategy of grouping organisms together based on their evolutionary history.

15 Felis Genus species domestica leo margarita
If these three species belong to the same genus, they are descended from a common ancestor. Felis domestica domestica Domestic Cat Felis Felis leo leo Lion Felis margarita margarita Sand cat`

16 Classification Using Cladograms
Cladogram: A diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms.

17 Segmentation Free swimming Larva Molted Exoskeleton
Crustaceans Gastropods Molted Exoskeleton Using Cladograms, you can see that crabs and barnacles share similar characteristics because they both molt & are segmented Segmentation Free swimming Larva

18 You can also see that ALL have a free swimming larval stage
Crustaceans Gastropods Molted Exoskeleton You can also see that ALL have a free swimming larval stage Segmentation Free swimming Larva

19 Modern Evolutionary Classification
Similarities in DNA and RNA The genes of many organisms show important similarities at the molecular level that can be used as criteria to help determine classification.

20 Modern Evolutionary Classification
Comparison reveals more DNA in common, the more recent the common ancestor Molecular Clocks A model known as a molecular clock uses DNA comparisons to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independently.

21 Terminology Classification Taxonomy Systematics Phylogeny
Assigning organisms to different catagories based on their relationship Taxonomy The science of naming organisms Systematics Determining evolutionary relationships of organisms Phylogeny Evolutionary history

22 Phylogenetic Tree Shows evolutionary relationships
More historical than cladogram

23 Echinodermata Uniramia Chelicerata Chordata Crustacea Protochordates
Lophophorates Crustacea Protochordates Arthropoda Annelida Hemichordata Mollusca Other pseudocoelomates Nemertea Platyhelminthes Nematoda Ctenophora Cnidaria Mesozoa Placozoa Sarcomastigophora Ciliophora Porifera Apicomplexa Microspora Myxozoa

24 Birds Mammals Reptile Amphibian Fish Four Limbs Amniotic Egg Endothermic Fur Feathers Vertebrae

25 Monophyletic A group of all the descendants of a common ancestor
The common ancestor is in the group Example: Birds and Reptiles Ancestor was a bird like reptile

26 Polyphyletic group that has some similarities
Contains organisms that have not descended from a common ancestor Based on physical characteristics instead of evolutionary evidence Example: Flying vertebrates- pterosaurs, birds, mammals

27 Cladogram Evolutionary relationship of a group of organisms
Each clad (group) share something in common Ancestral traits are the oldest Derived traits evolved later

28 Cladogram for Transportation
Wheels are the most ancestral Wings are the most derived

29 Construct a Cladogram

30 Gorilla Four limbs Fur Lost tail

31 Tiger Four limbs Fur Tail

32 Lizard Four limbs Tail

33 Fish Tail

34 Chimpanzee Four limbs Fur Lost tail

35 Clad With 4 Limbs

36 Clad With Fur

37 Clad With No Tail

38 Characteristics for Constructing Cladogram
Tail is the most ancestral Four limbs is the oldest derived trait Fur is a later derived trait Loss of tail is the most derived trait

39 Gorilla Chimpanzee Tiger Lizard Fish Tail Lost Fur Four Limbs

40 Gorilla Tail? How do we know the gorilla lost its tail?

41 Gorilla’s Vestigial Tail
Human Gorilla

42 The End.

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