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1EMILIE ARBOUR MICHAELA PEACE ALLIE PENROSE JENNIFER YOUNG ARTHROPODA INSECTAEMILIE ARBOURMICHAELA PEACEALLIE PENROSEJENNIFER YOUNG
2INTRODUCTION Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Subphylum: MandibulataClass: Hexapoda or Insecta90% of arthropods are insectsApproximately 1 million insect species
3EVOLUTION Fossils from 350 mya had wings and were fully insects Modern groups found 300 mya280 mya modern groups are dominant65 mya nearly all modern orders knownOldest fossils (350,000,000 years ago) had wings and were fully insects. In the upper Carboniferous (300,000,000 years ago), the modern insect groups were found, such as giant roaches. During the Permian period (280,000,000 years ago), modern groups along with paleodictyopteriods were dominant. Most modern orders were evolved by the time of the Cretaceous period (65,000,000 years ago).
4EVOLUTION Legs as locomotive aids Clustered into head, thorax and abdomenDisappeared or modified limbsMost believe that insects evolved from an organism that looked somewhat like the earthworm we see today. The theory is that these organisms grew legs from their segments in order to help with locomotion. Gradually the segments clustered together to form the head, thorax and abdomen. Limbs also disappeared or were modified, such as with the head, limbs evolved to become antennae and mouth parts.
5EVOLUTION Wings grew from gill-like apparatuses Compound eyes – one of the earliest identifiersIt is believed that the gill flaps gradually began to grow longer. At first this didn’t really do much, other than add to the distance that the insects could jump. These flaps began to get larger and larger, until the insects were able to use them to controlling diving and gliding and eventually flight.Compound eyes are only found among insects, centipedes, crustaceans and horseshoe crabs. A compound eye is an eye that has a large number, a few hundred to thousands, of facets which all face slightly different directions. Each facet is attached by its’ own optic nerve to the eye. The facets do not produce a complete image, just a spot, like a tile in a mosaic. Resolution (the number of facets in the eye) determines how well the insect can see. Majority of insects can only see a few feet ahead of them. Their eyes cannot focus – the clarity of their vision depends on the resolution and how far away the insect is from whatever they are trying to see. The advantages to this time of eye is that the processing is so much different than ours – it offers a much greater flicker fusion rate. This means that it can process what it sees much faster, which allows it to fly at high speeds and not hit things. Compound eyes are also excellent for detecting motion.
7CHARACTERISTICS Bilateral Symmetry Segmented Bodies Exoskeleton Head, Thorax, and AbdomenSimple and Compound EyesExoskeletonAdvantages and DisadvantagesJointed AppendagesLegs and AntennaeCold Blooded1. Bilateral SymmetryInsects have symmetrical body form, meaning that the right half of their body will be a mirror image of the left half2. Segmented BodiesInsects bodies have 3 tagma (segments): head, thorax, and abdomenInsects are internally and externally segmentedHEADThe antennae are located on the head segment. Insects can have 1 or 2 pairs of antennae, however, having only 1 pair present is more common.The antennae are the insect’s sense organs, used for feeling, tasting, hearing, and smellingInsects have TWO sets of eyes:Simple EyesCan have 1 to 3 simple eyes presentThese eyes only sense light and darknessCompound EyesHave 1 pair of compound eyesThis set of eyes contains several thousand lenses, allowing for a larger field of vision, as well as hundreds of light-sensitive units, giving the insect true visionEffective at detecting movement and motion3 sets of modified appendages that form the mouthA pair of mandibles for tearing and cutting food, a pair of maxillae and a single labium used to handle foodTHORAXInsects posses 3 pairs of segmented legs that are attached to the thoraxIf present, wings are attached to the thoraxInsects may have 0, 1, or 2 pairs of wingsWings are NOT modified appendages, but rather flaps of the exoskeleton of the mesothoracic and metathoracic segments of the thoraxThe thorax is further segmented into the prothorax, the mesothorax, and the metathoraxEach of the three thoracic segments contains one pair of legsThe anterior wings (if present) are located on the mesothoraxThe posterior wings (if present) are located on the metathoraxABDOMENContains most of the internal digestive, respiratory, excretory, and reproductive structuresThe abdomen is the largest tagma of insectsThe abdomen can be further divided into 11 segments3. ExoskeletonThe bodies of insects are not supported by internal bones, but rather by a hardened exoskeleton made of chitin and proteinThis exoskeleton is hard and strong, providing structural support in place of bones, and is also impermeable to waterThe chitinous exoskeleton is like a specially made, form-fitting suit of armour for the insectThe exoskeleton is produced by the insects “skin” and then hardens into a protective outer coatingThe exoskeleton, however, is rigid, and therefore has the potential to restrict the insect’s growth as it will not grow with themTo overcome this, the insect must periodically molt, or undergo the process of ecdysisIn ecdysis, the insect sheds its exoskeleton and makes a new, bigger one to allow for growthADVANTAGESProtectionProtects internal organsDefends against predators, parasites, and pathogensIsolates the insect from its surrounding environmentProtects against/prevents water loss (desiccation)Provides something for the insects muscles to pull onProvides the material with which respiratory structures (trachea) and wings are developedDISADVATAGESDecreased flexibilityTo grow, the exoskeleton must be shed to allow for a new, larger one to be produced4. Jointed AppendagesALL appendages of insects are jointedThis includes both antennae and legsInsects also have jointed feet, allowing for efficient walking and swimmingAt the joints of the insect’s leg, the exoskeleton becomes soft and bendable to allow for sufficient movementInsect appendages/limbs are UNIRAMOUS, meaning they consist of a single series of segments attached end-to-end (NO BRANCHING)5. Cold BloodedInsects are cold blooded, meaning that their body temperature is determined by the temperature of their surrounding environmentThis characteristic can also be called ectothermic, meaning that they rely on external sources for body heat
8CHARACTERISTICS Circulatory System Respiratory System Digestive System Nervous System1. Circulatory SystemInsects have an OPEN circulatory systemHave an internal cavity called a hemocoel in which the insect’s internal organs are bathed in body fluids (including blood). This direct contact allows for the exchange of nutrients, waste, and gasses2. Respiratory SystemInsects do not have lungsInsects are air-breathing invertebratesInsects breathe through thoracic and abdominal spiracles (openings in the side of the exoskeleton on the thorax and abdomen)These spiracles go throughout the body of the insect to transport gassesTracheae, a system of small tubes, run throughout the body of the insect to permit gas exchange3. Digestive SystemMost insects are herbivores, however some are carnivoresInsects have an alimentary canal, which is a tube that runs form the mouth to the anusThe alimentary canal is divided into 3 sections: the foregut, the midgut, and the hindgut4. Nervous SystemInsects have a brain and nerve cells (neurons) like humans, although much less complexDorsal (back) brain is linked to a ventral (belly) nerve chord
9REPRODUCTION Mainly sexual reproduction Hatch from eggs Two types of development: complete and incomplete metamorphosis.-Male either insert their reproductive structure directly into the female's reproductive parts, or deposit a sperm package to be picked up by the female. Mainly sexual but some species are known to reproduce by parthenogenesis (the embryos develop without fertilization)-Eggs are laid in a protected place or produced internally.
11COMPLETE METAMORPHOSIS Egg, Larva, Pupa, Adult.Larva and adult live in totally different habitats.90% of insects go through Complete Metamorphosis.The larvae looks like a worm and hatches from the egg. As it grows, it also sheds it skin. It then grows into a pupa. While the pupa doesn't move around like the larva, it does eventually at this stage change from an immature form to adult form.
13INCOMPLETE METAMORPHOSIS Three Stages: egg, nymph, adultEx. Mayflies and dragon flies.When the nymph hatches from the egg, it looks like the adult insect except it is smaller, has no wings and cannot reproduce yet. As the nymph grows it outgrows its outside skeleton and it is shed. It then regrows a new one. This happens several times before it finally becomes an adult.
14MOSQUITO Order: Diptera Life span: 2 weeks-6 months Habitat Carry Deadly DiseasesAnophelesCulexAedesBlood suckersHabitat: they are most commonly found in ponds, marshes, swamps and wetlands. They like hot humid environments because this is the best for their growth and survival. They also need water for reproduction because they breed and lay eggs on water.There are more than 3,000 species of mosquitos-3 of these species are primarily responsible for human diseases-Anopheles—carry malaria-Culex- carry encephalitis, filanasis and West Nile-Aedes– carry yellow fever, dengue , encephalitisOnly the females are the blood suckers. They use the blood not for their own nutrition but as a source of protein for there eggs.
15FUN FACTS Ants can carry 50 times there weight For every human about 1 million antsUsually only male cricket chirps1% are harmful to humansTHEY CAN BE GOOD!ProductsHoneyJewelryAgriculturePollinationPest controlHoney– healthy for humans (comes from bees)Jewelry– earing’s , necklaces (use beetles and other insects)Pollination– an insect will be taking pollen from one plant and it transfers it to anotherPest Control– use insects to kill crop pests to protect the growing crops
16WORKS CITED"Phylum: Arthropods, Class: Insecta - Animal Biology Spring 2010." Phylum: Arthropods, Class: Insecta - Animal Biology Spring N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Mar < https://sites.google.com/site/animalbiologyspring2010/insects>"Insects." INSECTS. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Mar <http://www.mcwdn.org/Animals/Insect.html>."THE TiDE CHAsER: Insects (Phylum Arthropoda: Class Insecta) of Singapore." THE TiDE CHAsER: Insects (Phylum Arthropoda: Class Insecta) of Singapore. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Mar <http://tidechaser.blogspot.ca/2013/06/insects-insecta-singapore.html>."Animal Diversity Web." Animal Diversity Web. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Mar <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Insecta/>."Phylum Arthropoda: The Arthropods." Phylum Arthropoda: The Arthropods. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Mar <http://chsweb.lr.k12.nj.us/mstanley/outlines/animals/arthropods/arthropods.htm>.
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