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The yin and yang of plants Medicinal uses & philosophy of plants in Chinese culture The yin and yang of plants Medicinal uses & philosophy of plants in.

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Presentation on theme: "The yin and yang of plants Medicinal uses & philosophy of plants in Chinese culture The yin and yang of plants Medicinal uses & philosophy of plants in."— Presentation transcript:

1 The yin and yang of plants Medicinal uses & philosophy of plants in Chinese culture The yin and yang of plants Medicinal uses & philosophy of plants in Chinese culture Jer-Ming Hu Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology National Taiwan University 本著作除另有註明外,採取創用 CC 「姓名標示-創用 CC 非商業性-相同方式分享」台灣 3.0 版授權釋出 3.0 版 Unless noted, the course materials are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial- ShareAlike 3.0 Taiwan (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 Introduction to the biodiversity of Taiwan

2 YANG YIN front back outside inside moving still up down warmth cold

3 Five phases theory Heart Small intestine Kidney Urinary bladder Generating Interaction Overcoming Interaction Wiki Benoît Stella alias User:BenduKiwi yin Lung Large intestine Spleen Stomach Liver Gall bladder yang

4 Tongue Diagnostics NormalQi DeficiencyHeatDamp Retention Blood Stasis Qi Stagnation Damp HeatYang Deficiency Yin Deficiency Blood Deficiency National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu

5 NASA World Wind JAVA SDK Traditional Chinese medicine ( 中醫 ) Kampo 漢方医学 Kampo 漢方医学 Hangul 한의학 Hangul 한의학 zhōng yī 中醫 zhōng yī 中醫 VCT đông y VCT đông y

6 Wiki User: Itsmine AD 0 Shen-Nong ben cao ( 神農本草 ) -252 plant species Shen-Nong ben cao ( 神農本草 ) -252 plant species Ben cao jing ji zhu ( 本草經集注 ) by Tao Hong-Jing ( 陶弘景 ) Tang ben cao ( 唐本草 ) by Ching Su ( 蘇敬 ) Ben cao gang mu ( 本草綱目 ) by Li Shi zhen ( 李時珍 ) plant species (58%) Ben cao gang mu ( 本草綱目 ) by Li Shi zhen ( 李時珍 ) plant species (58%) Wiki Uploader: Snowyowls

7 Properties of Chinese herbs Four qi (si-qi 四性 ) Cold (yin), cool, warm, hot (yang), and neutral Five flavors (tastes, wu-wei 五味 ) - effects Pungent - vitalizing; activating blood Sweet - tonifying or harmonizing Sour - astringent or consolidates Bitter - dispelling heat; detoxifying Salty - softening or purging Four qi (si-qi 四性 ) Cold (yin), cool, warm, hot (yang), and neutral Five flavors (tastes, wu-wei 五味 ) - effects Pungent - vitalizing; activating blood Sweet - tonifying or harmonizing Sour - astringent or consolidates Bitter - dispelling heat; detoxifying Salty - softening or purging

8 General categories of Chinese medicines Tonifying qi ( 補氣 ) Treating deficiency of qi Ginseng, shouwu, wolfberry, Tonifying (nourishing) yang (heat) ( 補陽 ) Tonifying (nourishing) yin (cold) ( 補陰 ) Resolving stasis (activate blood) ( 去瘀活血 ) Clearing heat ( 清熱 ) Tonifying blood ( 養血 ) Tonifying qi ( 補氣 ) Treating deficiency of qi Ginseng, shouwu, wolfberry, Tonifying (nourishing) yang (heat) ( 補陽 ) Tonifying (nourishing) yin (cold) ( 補陰 ) Resolving stasis (activate blood) ( 去瘀活血 ) Clearing heat ( 清熱 ) Tonifying blood ( 養血 ) WHO traditional medicine terminology in western Pacifics Flickr SqueakyMarmot

9 Wiki FloraFarm GmbH / Katharina Lohrie Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Member of aralia family (Araliaceae) Containing ginsenoside (steroid glycosides) Used as adaptogen, aphrodisiacs Member of aralia family (Araliaceae) Containing ginsenoside (steroid glycosides) Used as adaptogen, aphrodisiacs Wiki Scanned and processed by Mariluna

10 Hoshouwu (Fallopia multiflora) 何首烏 Member of buckweed family (Polygonaceae) It is said to be able to rejuvenate the body Member of buckweed family (Polygonaceae) It is said to be able to rejuvenate the body Wiki Fanghong Wikimedia Commons Badagnani

11 Forestry Bureau, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan Camphor fungus Camphor fungus (Antrodia camphorata) is thought to have anti-cancer activities Only grown on Bull’s camphor tree, which is rare and endemic to Taiwan (IUCN status: EN) ~USD$17000 or more per kg. Camphor fungus (Antrodia camphorata) is thought to have anti-cancer activities Only grown on Bull’s camphor tree, which is rare and endemic to Taiwan (IUCN status: EN) ~USD$17000 or more per kg. Flickr plj.johnny Taitung Forest District Office, Forestry Bureau, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan Source: It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. Forestry Bureau ( 行政院農業委員會林務局臺東林區管理處 ) 著作權聲明 著作權聲明

12 Caterpillar fungus ( 冬蟲夏草 ) Caterpillar fungus (yartsa gunbu in Tibetan) is a result of relationship between fungus Cordyceps and the larva of the ghost moth, which lives only on Tibetan Plateau. Nourishing yang, tonifying lung A famous Chinese medicine claimed to have anti-tumor, anti-viral activities. Caterpillar fungus (yartsa gunbu in Tibetan) is a result of relationship between fungus Cordyceps and the larva of the ghost moth, which lives only on Tibetan Plateau. Nourishing yang, tonifying lung A famous Chinese medicine claimed to have anti-tumor, anti-viral activities. Wiki Uploader: Rafti Institute Winkler Economic Botany. Vol. 62. pp Picasa Felix Wayne

13 Herbs tonifying yang Cynomorium songaricum (Suo-yang, Cynomoriaceae) -Invigorates kidney Epimedium brevicornu (yi-yang-huo, Berberidaceae) Active ingredient: icariine Epimedium brevicornu (yi-yang-huo, Berberidaceae) Active ingredient: icariine Plant Photo Bank of China Picasa Yibing Wu Plant Photo Bank of China Source: This work is from the website of “Plant Photo Bank of China” ( 中國植物圖像庫 ) ,根據著 作權聲明與中華人民共和國著作權法第 22 條,本資料庫係以合理使用方式利用本件 作品著 作權聲明中華人民共和國著作權法第 22 條 Source: This work is from the website of “Plant Photo Bank of China” ( 中國植 物圖像庫 ) ,根據著作權聲明與中華人民共和國著作權法第 22 條, 本資料庫係以合理使用方式利用本件作品著作權聲明中華人民共和國著作權法第 22 條

14 Herbs tonifying yang Eucommia ulmoides (duzhong 杜仲, sole member of Eucommiaceae) Eucommia tea is popular for reducing weight Flickr jennyhsu47 Wiki Sten Porse Flickr Ordinary daily life of yoshinokichi

15 Herbs tonifying ‘yin’ Solomon’s seal (Huangjing, Tiger’s ginger, Polygonatum sibiricum, lily family) Nourish spleen and lung It is said to have anti-aging feature Solomon’s seal (Huangjing, Tiger’s ginger, Polygonatum sibiricum, lily family) Nourish spleen and lung It is said to have anti-aging feature Plant Photo Bank of China Source: This work is from the website of “Plant Photo Bank of China” ( 中國植物圖 像庫 ) ,根據著作權聲明與中華人民共和國著作權法第 22 條,本資料庫 係以合理使用方式利用本件作品著作權聲明中華人民共和國著作權法第 22 條 Source: This work is from the website of “Plant Photo Bank of China” ( 中國植物圖像 庫 ) ,根據著作權聲明與中華人民共和國著作權法第 22 條,本資料庫係以 合理使用方式利用本件作品著作權聲明中華人民共和國著作權法第 22 條

16 Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum & L. chinense) It is traditionally used in cardiovascular and vision- related diseases, and believed to have anticancer and immunomodulatory properties. Chrysanthemum wolfberry tea Wiki User: Topjabot Flickr FotoosVanRobin Flickr redpolkadot

17 The cultivation of wolfberry in China is over 2 million acres. One of the many recognized ‘superfruit’ The cultivation of wolfberry in China is over 2 million acres. One of the many recognized ‘superfruit’ Flickr ckngai123Flickr ruifipieggio

18 Herbs with ‘hot/warm’ property Siler (fang-feng 防風, Saposhnikovia divaricata) Pungent tastes, warm Treating cold symptoms Siler (fang-feng 防風, Saposhnikovia divaricata) Pungent tastes, warm Treating cold symptoms Plant Photo Bank of China Source: This work is from the website of “Plant Photo Bank of China” ( 中國植 物圖像庫 ) ,根據著作權聲明與中華人民共和國著作權法第 22 條, 本資料庫係以合理使用方式利用本件作品著作權聲明中華人民共和國著作權法第 22 條 Source: This work is from the website of “Plant Photo Bank of China” ( 中國植物圖像 庫 ) ,根據著作權聲明與中華人民共和國著作權法第 22 條,本資料庫係以 合理使用方式利用本件作品著作權聲明中華人民共和國著作權法第 22 條

19 Herbs with ‘cold’ property Mint (Mentha haplocalyx) Pungent, cold Promote sweating to release the exterior Mint (Mentha haplocalyx) Pungent, cold Promote sweating to release the exterior Mint tea is said can ease stomach discomfort Flickr Zanthia Picasa Sian Liu Wikispecies Doronenko

20 Tonifying (nourishing) blood Di huang (Rehmannia glutinosa 地黃 ) Raw di-huang ( 生地 ) Reduce heat Treating yin deficiency Processed di-huang ( 熟地 ) Enrich yin Active ingredient: rehmannioside, aucubin Di huang (Rehmannia glutinosa 地黃 ) Raw di-huang ( 生地 ) Reduce heat Treating yin deficiency Processed di-huang ( 熟地 ) Enrich yin Active ingredient: rehmannioside, aucubin Dried Rehmanniae radix Wiki SchizhaoCommittee on Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Health, Executive Yuan

21 Formulas: compound medicine The principles Sovereign Principal curative action Minister Help strengthen the principal action Assistant Treats the combined syndrome, relieves secondary symptoms Courier Directs action to the affected meridian/channel or site Prohibited combination 18 antagonisms, 19 incompatibilities The principles Sovereign Principal curative action Minister Help strengthen the principal action Assistant Treats the combined syndrome, relieves secondary symptoms Courier Directs action to the affected meridian/channel or site Prohibited combination 18 antagonisms, 19 incompatibilities

22 Famous compound formulas Siwu tang (four substance soup 四物湯 ) Dong quai (Angelica sinensis) Dong quai (Angelica sinensis) Chinese peony (Paeonia lactiflora) Chinese peony (Paeonia lactiflora) Szechuan lovage rhizome (Chuan xiong, Ligusticum wallichii) Szechuan lovage rhizome (Chuan xiong, Ligusticum wallichii) Di huang (Rehmannia glutinosa 地黃 ) Wiki Ulf Eliasson Wiki Schizhao Flickr Christabelle ‧迴紋針 Picasa Sian Liu

23 Photo by National Taiwan University Jer- Ming Hu

24 Famous compound formulas Nin Jiom Per Pa Koa ( 川貝枇杷膏 ) Fritillary: bitter, cold; moisten lung Loquat leaf: bitter, cold; moisten lung and suppress coughing 京都念慈菴 Photo by Wiki Cybergoth Wiki User: Oldie Flickr tanakawho

25 Famous compound formula Seirogan ( 正露丸 ), a Taiko pharmaceutical drug Treating loose stool and diarrhea Ingredient: Wood creosote Seirogan ( 正露丸 ), a Taiko pharmaceutical drug Treating loose stool and diarrhea Ingredient: Wood creosote Seirgoan ( 正露丸 ) Photo by Flickr LiuTao

26 Gambir (Uncaria gambir, Rubiaceae) Anti-diarrheal Gambir (Uncaria gambir, Rubiaceae) Anti-diarrheal Phellodendron bark (Phellodendron amurense, Rutaceae) Anti-diarrheal or bitter tasting stomachic Treatment of bruises or sprains (externally) Phellodendron bark (Phellodendron amurense, Rutaceae) Anti-diarrheal or bitter tasting stomachic Treatment of bruises or sprains (externally) Glycyrrhiza (licorice, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Fabaceae) Analgesic or antispasmodic agent, and expectorant Glycyrrhiza (licorice, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Fabaceae) Analgesic or antispasmodic agent, and expectorant Citrus unshiu peel (Citrus unshiu, Rutaceae) Stomach medicine Citrus unshiu peel (Citrus unshiu, Rutaceae) Stomach medicine Wiki Kurt Stüber

27 Yin and yang of daily food Chili pepperPungent, hot GingerPungent, warm PumpkinSweet, warm CabbageSweet, neutral CelerySweet, cool SpinachSweet, cool Bamboo shootSweet, cold CherrySweet, warm GuavaSour, warm AppleSour, sweet, neutral Orange/TangerineSweet, sour, cool BananaSweet, cold

28 Flickr ezezfun Watermelon Cool Watermelon Cool Flickr Abura Yu National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu

29 Mint herb tea Flickr Jimmy.White Flickr xamous Picasa 曾坤發

30 Aiyu (Ficus pumila) National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Wiki User: takoradee Wiki Onlymyself65536

31 Starfruit (carambola, Averrhoa carambola) Origin in tropical Asia Sweet, sour, cold Nourishing lung Contains oxalic acid, therefore harmful to the ones with kidney failure Starfruit (carambola, Averrhoa carambola) Origin in tropical Asia Sweet, sour, cold Nourishing lung Contains oxalic acid, therefore harmful to the ones with kidney failure Flickr JimmyHsu / 毛導

32 Drinks preventing ‘cold’, promoting ‘heat’ G inger tea Na tional Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Flickr ting0308 G inger tea + Sweet Potato Flickr Patricia W.

33 Longan & red dates tea Longan (Dimocarpus longan, Sapindaceae) Red dates (Ziziphus jujuba, Rhamnaceae) Picasa Art Vogel Flickr lumei

34 Wiki DryPot Different properties in bean families Cold/cool Neutral mung bean tofu urad bean sprout soybean broad bean soy milk Wiki Sanjay Acharya Wiki User: Sanjay Ach Picasa Rosa Aleida Restrepo Becerra Flickr stu_spivack

35 Different parts of plants can have different properties Coconut ‘meat’ (solid endosperm): neutral Coconut ‘milk’ (liquid endosperm): warm Flickr EtherH

36 Wiki Wikimol Different ways of preparation can change property Fresh leaf Partial oxidation Full oxidation Green tea Oolong tea Black tea Unwilted and unoxidized Sweet, cold Unwilted and unoxidized Sweet, cold Wilted, bruised, partially oxidized Sweet, neutral to cool Wilted, bruised, partially oxidized Sweet, neutral to cool Wilted and fully oxidized Sweet, warm Wilted and fully oxidized Sweet, warm Wiki Uploader: lateasquirrelFlickr shihwy1

37 Wiki W.A. Djatmiko (Wie146) Durian (Durio, Malvaceae) “King of fruits” Sweet, hot Indescribable smell... Durian (Durio, Malvaceae) “King of fruits” Sweet, hot Indescribable smell... Neutralizing the effects of yin and yang Wiki User: Markalexander100 Wiki User: BorgQueen

38 Wiki User: KayEss Purple mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) “Queen of fruits” Sweet, cold Purple mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) “Queen of fruits” Sweet, cold

39 Enokitake (enoki) Garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium) Napa cabbage Hot top Flickr Ray Yu Flickr The Boreka DiaryFlickr xx3734

40 Practical example: categorizing a ‘cold’ (flu) Cold flu Symptoms: stuffed nose, sneezing, coughing, chilling feels, less fever Suggested Ginger drinks with brown sugar Don’t eat: pear, tangerine Hot flu Symptoms: high fever, sore throat, coughing Suggested Mint/mulberry tea Chrysanthemum tea Watermelon juice Cold flu Symptoms: stuffed nose, sneezing, coughing, chilling feels, less fever Suggested Ginger drinks with brown sugar Don’t eat: pear, tangerine Hot flu Symptoms: high fever, sore throat, coughing Suggested Mint/mulberry tea Chrysanthemum tea Watermelon juice

41 Other coughing drinks Sugarcane tea Drink in hot Sometimes with ginger Sugarcane tea Drink in hot Sometimes with ginger Citrus tea Drink in hot Citrus tea Drink in hot Flickr PipperL Picasa 和碩睿親王 Flickr tenz1225 Flickr * 嘟嘟嘟 *

42 Final words Plants have different nature (cold/hot) Food nature can vary due to different preparation Know your body nature before consuming food Plants have different nature (cold/hot) Food nature can vary due to different preparation Know your body nature before consuming food

43 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Wiki Klem 2011/12/9 visited Wiki Benoît Stella alias User:BenduKiwi 2011/12/9 visited National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu NASA World Wind JAVA SDK 2011/10/3 visited Note: The original work is from World Wind Java SDK: It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: NASA Web Privacy Policy and Photo GuidelinesWeb Privacy PolicyPhoto Guidelines Wiki User: Miuki 2011/12/9 visited Wiki Uploader: Snowyowls 2011/12/9 visited Wiki User: Itsmine 2011/12/10 visited Copyright Declaration

44 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Wiki User: Vberger 2011/12/10 visited Flickr SqueakyMarmot 2011/12/11 visited Wiki Scanned and processed by Mariluna 2011/12/11 visited Wiki FloraFarm GmbH / Katharina Lohrie 2011/12/11 visited Wikimedia Commons Badagnani 2011/12/11 visited Wiki Fanghong 2011/12/11 visited This work is from theTaitung Forest District Office, Forestry Bureau, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan ( 行政院農委會 林務局台東林管處 ) It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. Forestry Bureau ( 行政院農業委員會林務局臺東林區管理處 ) 著作權聲明 : Flickr plj.johnny 2011/12/11 visited Forestry Bureau, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan This work is licensed by Forestry Bureau, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan for the use of “The Biodiversity of Taiwan” course ONLY. The copyright belongs to the above mentioned entity and GET does not have the authorization right. Copyright privileges have to be negotiated with the copyright owner(s) for separately.

45 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Picasa Felix Wayne https://picasaweb.google.com/lh/view?q=Cordyceps+sinensis&uname= &psc=G&filter=1&imglic= creative_commons# /12/11 visited Wiki Uploader: Rafti Institute 2011/12/11 visited This work is from the website of “Plant Photo Bank of China” ( 中國植物圖像庫 ) It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 中國植物圖像庫版權申明 : 若用于教学目的时使用本站图片需完整保留本站图标,不得故意遮挡、剪裁修改图片、水印及图标。 Picasa Yibing Wu https://picasaweb.google.com/lh/view?imglic=creative_commons&psc=G&uname= &q=%E9%8E %96%E9%99%BD&filter=1# /12/12 visited This work is from the website of “Plant Photo Bank of China” ( 中國植物圖像庫 ) It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 中國植物圖像庫版權申明 : 若用于教学目的时使用本站图片需完整保留本站图标,不得故意遮挡、剪裁修改图片、水印及图标。 Wiki Sten Porse 2011/12/11 visited Flickr jennyhsu /12/11 visited Flickr Ordinary daily life of yoshinokichi 2011/12/11 visited This work is from the website of “Plant Photo Bank of China” ( 中國植物圖像庫 ) It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 中國植物圖像庫版權申明 : 若用于教学目的时使用本站图片需完整保留本站图标,不得故意遮挡、剪裁修改图片、水印及图标。

46 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source This work is from the website of “Plant Photo Bank of China” ( 中國植物圖像庫 ) It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 中國植物圖像庫版權申明 : 若用于教学目的时使用本站图片需完整保留本站图标,不得故意遮挡、剪裁修改图片、水印及图标。 Wiki User: Topjabot 2011/12/11 visited Flickr FotoosVanRobin 2011/12/11 visited Flickr redpolkadot 2011/12/11 visited Flickr ckngai /12/11 visited Flickr ruifipieggio 2011/12/11 visited This work is from the website of “Plant Photo Bank of China” ( 中國植物圖像庫 ) It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 中國植物圖像庫版權申明 : 若用于教学目的时使用本站图片需完整保留本站图标,不得故意遮挡、剪裁修改图片、水印及图标。 This work is from the website of “Plant Photo Bank of China” ( 中國植物圖像庫 ) It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 中國植物圖像庫版權申明 : 若用于教学目的时使用本站图片需完整保留本站图标,不得故意遮挡、剪裁修改图片、水印及图标。 Wikispecies Doronenko 2011/12/12 visited

47 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Picasa Sian Liu https://picasaweb.google.com/lh/view?imglic=creative_commons&psc=G&uname= &q=%E8% 96%84%E8%8D%B7&filter=1# /12/12 visited Flickr Zanthia 2011/12/12 visited Wiki Schizhao 2011/12/12 visited This work is from the Committee on Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Health, Executive Yuan The original source is from Executive Yuan ( 行政院 ), so this work is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 50 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 行政院著作權聲明 : 本院網站上所刊載以本院名義公開發表之著作,即著作人為本院者,在合理範圍內,得重製、 公開播送或公開傳輸;利用時,並請註明出處。 Flickr Christabelle ‧迴紋針 2011/12/12 visited Wiki NIH 2011/12/12 visited Picasa Sian Liu https://picasaweb.google.com/lh/view?q=%E5%B7%9D%E8%8A%8E&uname= &psc=G&filte r=1&imglic=creative_commons# /12/12 visited Wiki Ulf Eliasson 2011/12/12 visited National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.

48 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source 京都念慈菴 photo by Wiki Cybergoth 2011/12/11 visited Flickr tanakawho 2011/12/12 visited Wiki User: Oldie 2011/12/11/ visited 正露丸 photo by Flickr LiuTao 2011/12/12 visited Wiki Extvia 2011/12/12 visited Wiki Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen 2011/12/12 visited Wiki Kurt Stüber 2011/12/12 visited Wiki Stickpen 2011/12/12 visited Wiki Batholith (talk) 2011/12/12 visited Flickr Abura Yu 2011/12/13 visited

49 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Flickr ezezfun 2011/12/13 visited Flickr xamous 2011/12/13 visited Picasa 曾坤發 https://picasaweb.google.com/lh/view?q= 仙草 &uname= &psc=G&filter=1&imglic=creative_commons# /12/13 visited Flickr Jimmy.White 2011/12/12 visited National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Wiki User: takoradee 2011/12/13 visited Wiki Onlymyself /12/13 visited

50 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Wiki David.Monniaux 2011/12/13 visited Flickr JimmyHsu / 毛導 2011/12/13 visited National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Flickr Patricia W /12/14 visited Flickr ting /12/13 visited Flickr lumei 2011/12/14 visited Wiki User: Minesweeper 2011/12/14 visited Picasa Art Vogel https://picasaweb.google.com/lh/view?q=Ziziphus+jujuba&uname= &psc=G&filter=1&hl=zh- TW&imglic=creative_commons# /12/14 visited Wiki Sanjay Acharya 2011/12/14 visited

51 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Wiki DryPot 2011/12/14 visited Wiki User: Sanjay Ach 2011/12/14 visited Wiki AlbertCahalan 2011/12/14 visited Picasa Rosa Aleida Restrepo Becerra https://picasaweb.google.com/lh/view?q=soybean&uname= &psc=G&filter=1&imglic=creative _commons# /12/14 visited Wiki Richard W.M. Jones 2011/12/14 visited Flickr stu spivack 2011/12/14 visited Wiki Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen 2011/12/14 visited Flickr EtherH 2011/12/14 visited Wiki Wikimol 2011/12/14 visited

52 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Wiki Uploader: lateasquirrel 2011/12/14 visited Flickr shihwy /12/14 visited Wiki W.A. Djatmiko (Wie146) 2011/12/14 visited Wiki User: Markalexander /12/14 visited Wiki User: BorgQueen 2011/12/14 visited Wiki User: KayEss 2011/12/14 visited Flickr Ray Yu 2011/12/14 visited Flickr The Boreka Diary 2011/12/14 visited Flickr Ray Yu 2011/12/14 visited

53 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Flickr xx /12/14 visited Flickr * 嘟嘟嘟 * 2011/12/14 visited Flickr tenz /12/14 visited Picasa 和碩睿親王 https://picasaweb.google.com/lh/view?q=%E7%94%98%E8%94%97&uname= &psc=G&filter =1&imglic=creative_commons# /12/14 visited Flickr PipperL 2011/12/14 visited


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