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The yin and yang of plants

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1 The yin and yang of plants
Introduction to the biodiversity of Taiwan The yin and yang of plants Medicinal uses & philosophy of plants in Chinese culture Jer-Ming Hu Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology National Taiwan University 本著作除另有註明外,採取創用CC「姓名標示- 非商業性-相同方式分享」台灣3.0版授權釋出 Unless noted, the course materials are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Taiwan (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

2 YANG YIN front back outside inside moving still up down warmth cold

3 yang yin Five phases theory Gall bladder Liver Urinary bladder
Small intestine Kidney Heart Wood feeds Fire; Fire creates Earth (ash); Earth bears Metal; Metal carries Water (as in a bucket or tap, or water condenses on metal); Water nourishes Wood. Wood parts Earth (such as roots; or, Trees can prevent soil erosion); Earth absorbs (or muddies) Water (or Earth dam control the water); Water quenches Fire; Fire melts Metal; Metal chops Wood Lung Wiki Benoît Stella alias User:BenduKiwi Spleen Large intestine Stomach Generating Interaction Overcoming Interaction

4 Tongue Diagnostics Normal Qi Deficiency Heat Damp Retention
Blood Stasis Qi Stagnation Damp Heat Yang Deficiency Yin Blood National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu

5 Traditional Chinese medicine (中醫)
Hangul 한의학 zhōng yī 中醫 Kampo 漢方医学 VCT đông y NASA World Wind JAVA SDK

6 Shen-Nong ben cao (神農本草) -252 plant species
AD 0 Shen-Nong ben cao (神農本草) -252 plant species 500 Ben cao jing ji zhu (本草經集注) by Tao Hong-Jing (陶弘景) 659 Tang ben cao (唐本草) by Ching Su (蘇敬) 1000 Wiki Uploader: Snowyowls Ben cao gang mu (本草綱目) by Li Shi zhen (李時珍) -1095 plant species (58%) 1578 Wiki User: Itsmine 2000

7 Properties of Chinese herbs
Four qi (si-qi 四性) Cold (yin), cool, warm, hot (yang), and neutral Five flavors (tastes, wu-wei 五味) - effects Pungent - vitalizing; activating blood Sweet - tonifying or harmonizing Sour - astringent or consolidates Bitter - dispelling heat; detoxifying Salty - softening or purging

8 General categories of Chinese medicines
Tonifying qi (補氣) Treating deficiency of qi Ginseng, shouwu, wolfberry, Tonifying (nourishing) yang (heat) (補陽) Tonifying (nourishing) yin (cold) (補陰) Resolving stasis (activate blood) (去瘀活血) Clearing heat (清熱) Tonifying blood (養血) Flickr SqueakyMarmot WHO traditional medicine terminology in western Pacifics

9 Ginseng (Panax ginseng)
Member of aralia family (Araliaceae) Containing ginsenoside (steroid glycosides) Used as adaptogen, aphrodisiacs Wiki FloraFarm GmbH / Katharina Lohrie Wiki Scanned and processed by Mariluna

10 Hoshouwu (Fallopia multiflora) 何首烏
Member of buckweed family (Polygonaceae) It is said to be able to rejuvenate the body Wikimedia Commons Badagnani Wiki Fanghong

11 Forestry Bureau, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan
Camphor fungus Camphor fungus (Antrodia camphorata) is thought to have anti-cancer activities Only grown on Bull’s camphor tree, which is rare and endemic to Taiwan (IUCN status: EN) ~USD$17000 or more per kg. Flickr plj.johnny Taitung Forest District Office, Forestry Bureau, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan Source: It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. Forestry Bureau (行政院農業委員會林務局臺東林區管理處)著作權聲明 Forestry Bureau, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan

12 Caterpillar fungus (冬蟲夏草)
Caterpillar fungus (yartsa gunbu in Tibetan) is a result of relationship between fungus Cordyceps and the larva of the ghost moth, which lives only on Tibetan Plateau. Nourishing yang, tonifying lung A famous Chinese medicine claimed to have anti-tumor, anti-viral activities. Winkler Economic Botany. Vol. 62. pp Wiki Uploader: Rafti Institute Picasa Felix Wayne

13 Herbs tonifying yang -Invigorates kidney
Cynomorium songaricum (Suo-yang, Cynomoriaceae) Epimedium brevicornu (yi-yang-huo, Berberidaceae) Active ingredient: icariine Plant Photo Bank of China Source: This work is from the website of “Plant Photo Bank of China” (中國植物圖像庫),根據著作權聲明與中華人民共和國著作權法第22條,本資料庫係以合理使用方式利用本件作品 Picasa Yibing Wu Plant Photo Bank of China Source: This work is from the website of “Plant Photo Bank of China” (中國植物圖像庫),根據著作權聲明與中華人民共和國著作權法第22條,本資料庫係以合理使用方式利用本件作品

14 Herbs tonifying yang Eucommia ulmoides (duzhong 杜仲, sole member of Eucommiaceae) Eucommia tea is popular for reducing weight Wiki Sten Porse Flickr Ordinary daily life of yoshinokichi Flickr jennyhsu47

15 Herbs tonifying ‘yin’ Solomon’s seal (Huangjing, Tiger’s ginger, Polygonatum sibiricum, lily family) Nourish spleen and lung It is said to have anti-aging feature Plant Photo Bank of China Plant Photo Bank of China Source: This work is from the website of “Plant Photo Bank of China” (中國植物圖像庫),根據著作權聲明與中華人民共和國著作權法第22條,本資料庫係以合理使用方式利用本件作品 Source: This work is from the website of “Plant Photo Bank of China” (中國植物圖像庫),根據著作權聲明與中華人民共和國著作權法第22條,本資料庫係以合理使用方式利用本件作品

16 Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum & L. chinense)
It is traditionally used in cardiovascular and vision-related diseases, and believed to have anticancer and immunomodulatory properties. Chrysanthemum wolfberry tea Flickr FotoosVanRobin Flickr redpolkadot Wiki User: Topjabot

17 The cultivation of wolfberry in China is over 2 million acres.
One of the many recognized ‘superfruit’ Flickr ckngai123 Flickr ruifipieggio

18 Herbs with ‘hot/warm’ property
Siler (fang-feng 防風, Saposhnikovia divaricata) Pungent tastes, warm Treating cold symptoms Plant Photo Bank of China Plant Photo Bank of China Source: This work is from the website of “Plant Photo Bank of China” (中國植物圖像庫),根據著作權聲明與中華人民共和國著作權法第22條,本資料庫係以合理使用方式利用本件作品 Source: This work is from the website of “Plant Photo Bank of China” (中國植物圖像庫),根據著作權聲明與中華人民共和國著作權法第22條,本資料庫係以合理使用方式利用本件作品

19 Herbs with ‘cold’ property
Mint (Mentha haplocalyx) Pungent, cold Promote sweating to release the exterior Wikispecies Doronenko Flickr Zanthia Mint tea is said can ease stomach discomfort Picasa Sian Liu

20 Tonifying (nourishing) blood
Di huang (Rehmannia glutinosa 地黃) Raw di-huang (生地) Reduce heat Treating yin deficiency Processed di-huang (熟地) Enrich yin Active ingredient: rehmannioside, aucubin Dried Rehmanniae radix Wiki Schizhao Committee on Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Health, Executive Yuan

21 Formulas: compound medicine
The principles Sovereign Principal curative action Minister Help strengthen the principal action Assistant Treats the combined syndrome, relieves secondary symptoms Courier Directs action to the affected meridian/channel or site Prohibited combination 18 antagonisms, 19 incompatibilities

22 Famous compound formulas
Siwu tang (four substance soup 四物湯) Dong quai (Angelica sinensis) Chinese peony (Paeonia lactiflora) Wiki Ulf Eliasson Flickr Christabelle‧迴紋針 Wiki Schizhao Di huang (Rehmannia glutinosa 地黃) Picasa Sian Liu Szechuan lovage rhizome (Chuan xiong, Ligusticum wallichii)

23 Photo by National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu

24 Famous compound formulas
Nin Jiom Per Pa Koa (川貝枇杷膏) Loquat leaf: bitter, cold; moisten lung and suppress coughing Fritillary: bitter, cold; moisten lung 京都念慈菴 Photo by Wiki Cybergoth Wiki User: Oldie Flickr tanakawho

25 Famous compound formula
Seirogan (正露丸), a Taiko pharmaceutical drug Treating loose stool and diarrhea Ingredient: Wood creosote Seirgoan (正露丸) Photo by Flickr LiuTao

26 Gambir (Uncaria gambir, Rubiaceae) Anti-diarrheal
Phellodendron bark (Phellodendron amurense, Rutaceae) Anti-diarrheal or bitter tasting stomachic Treatment of bruises or sprains (externally) Glycyrrhiza (licorice, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Fabaceae) Analgesic or antispasmodic agent, and expectorant Wiki Kurt Stüber Citrus unshiu peel (Citrus unshiu, Rutaceae) Stomach medicine

27 Yin and yang of daily food
Chili pepper Pungent, hot Ginger Pungent, warm Pumpkin Sweet, warm Cabbage Sweet, neutral Celery Sweet, cool Spinach Bamboo shoot Sweet, cold Cherry Guava Sour, warm Apple Sour, sweet, neutral Orange/Tangerine Sweet, sour, cool Banana

28 National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu
Watermelon Cool National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Flickr Abura Yu Flickr ezezfun

29 Mint herb tea Picasa 曾坤發 Flickr xamous Flickr Jimmy.White

30 Aiyu (Ficus pumila) Wiki User: takoradee
National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Wiki Onlymyself65536

31 (carambola, Averrhoa carambola)
Starfruit (carambola, Averrhoa carambola) Origin in tropical Asia Sweet, sour, cold Nourishing lung Contains oxalic acid, therefore harmful to the ones with kidney failure Flickr JimmyHsu / 毛導

32 Drinks preventing ‘cold’, promoting ‘heat’
National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Ginger tea Ginger tea + Sweet Potato Flickr ting0308 Flickr Patricia W.

33 Longan & red dates tea Longan (Dimocarpus longan, Sapindaceae)
Flickr lumei Longan (Dimocarpus longan, Sapindaceae) Red dates (Ziziphus jujuba, Rhamnaceae) Picasa Art Vogel

34 Different properties in bean families
Cold/cool Neutral soybean Wiki Sanjay Acharya mung bean bean sprout Picasa Rosa Aleida Restrepo Becerra tofu Wiki DryPot broad bean Flickr stu_spivack soy milk Wiki User: Sanjay Ach urad

35 Different parts of plants can have different properties
Coconut ‘meat’ (solid endosperm): neutral Coconut ‘milk’ (liquid endosperm): warm Flickr EtherH

36 Different ways of preparation can change property
Green tea Unwilted and unoxidized Sweet, cold Wiki Wikimol Oolong tea Fresh leaf Partial oxidation Wilted, bruised, partially oxidized Sweet, neutral to cool Wiki Uploader: lateasquirrel Black tea Full oxidation Wilted and fully oxidized Sweet, warm Flickr shihwy1

37 Neutralizing the effects of yin and yang
Durian (Durio, Malvaceae) “King of fruits” Sweet, hot Indescribable smell... Wiki W.A. Djatmiko (Wie146) Wiki User: BorgQueen Wiki User: Markalexander100

38 (Garcinia mangostana)
Purple mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) “Queen of fruits” Sweet, cold Wiki User: KayEss

39 Garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium)
Hot top Flickr Ray Yu Flickr Ray Yu Garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium) Napa cabbage Enokitake (enoki) Flickr The Boreka Diary Flickr xx3734

40 Practical example: categorizing a ‘cold’ (flu)
Symptoms: stuffed nose, sneezing, coughing, chilling feels, less fever Suggested Ginger drinks with brown sugar Don’t eat: pear, tangerine Hot flu Symptoms: high fever, sore throat, coughing Mint/mulberry tea Chrysanthemum tea Watermelon juice

41 Other coughing drinks Sugarcane tea Citrus tea Drink in hot
Sometimes with ginger Citrus tea Drink in hot Flickr *嘟嘟嘟* Flickr tenz1225 Flickr PipperL Picasa 和碩睿親王

42 Final words Plants have different nature (cold/hot)
Food nature can vary due to different preparation Know your body nature before consuming food

43 Copyright Declaration
Work Licensing Author/Source Wiki Klem 2011/12/9 visited Wiki Benoît Stella alias User:BenduKiwi National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu NASA World Wind JAVA SDK 2011/10/3 visited Note: The original work is from World Wind Java SDK: It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: NASA Web Privacy Policy and Photo Guidelines Wiki User: Miuki Wiki Uploader: Snowyowls Wiki User: Itsmine 2011/12/10 visited

44 Work Licensing Author/Source
Wiki User: Vberger 2011/12/10 visited Flickr SqueakyMarmot 2011/12/11 visited Wiki Scanned and processed by Mariluna Wiki FloraFarm GmbH / Katharina Lohrie Wikimedia Commons Badagnani Wiki Fanghong This work is from theTaitung Forest District Office, Forestry Bureau, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan (行政院農委會林務局台東林管處) It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. Forestry Bureau (行政院農業委員會林務局臺東林區管理處)著作權聲明: Flickr plj.johnny Forestry Bureau, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan This work is licensed by Forestry Bureau, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan for the use of “The Biodiversity of Taiwan” course ONLY. The copyright belongs to the above mentioned entity and GET does not have the authorization right. Copyright privileges have to be negotiated with the copyright owner(s) for separately. 行政院農委會林務局台東林管處 著作權聲明 : 〝合理使用情形〞,說明如下: (1)本網站上所刊載以行政院農業委員會林務局名義公開發表之著作,即著作人為行政院農業委員會林務局者,在合理範圍內,得重製、公開播送或公開傳輸,利用時,並請註明出處。 (2)本網站上之資訊,可為個人或家庭非營利之目的而重製。 (3)為報導、評論、教學、研究或其他正當目的,在合理範圍內,得引用本網站上之資訊,引用時,並請註明出處。 (4)其他合理使用情形,請參考著作權法第四十四條至第六十五條之規定。

45 Work Licensing Author/Source Picasa Felix Wayne https://picasaweb.google.com/lh/view?q=Cordyceps+sinensis&uname= &psc=G&filter=1&imglic=creative_commons# 2011/12/11 visited Wiki Uploader: Rafti Institute This work is from the website of “Plant Photo Bank of China” (中國植物圖像庫) It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 中國植物圖像庫版權申明: 若用于教学目的时使用本站图片需完整保留本站图标,不得故意遮挡、剪裁修改图片、水印及图标。 Picasa Yibing Wu https://picasaweb.google.com/lh/view?imglic=creative_commons&psc=G&uname= &q=%E9%8E%96%E9%99%BD&filter=1# 2011/12/12 visited This work is from the website of “Plant Photo Bank of China” (中國植物圖像庫) It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Wiki Sten Porse Flickr jennyhsu47 Flickr Ordinary daily life of yoshinokichi This work is from the website of “Plant Photo Bank of China” (中國植物圖像庫) It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:

46 Work Licensing Author/Source
This work is from the website of “Plant Photo Bank of China” (中國植物圖像庫) It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 中國植物圖像庫版權申明: 若用于教学目的时使用本站图片需完整保留本站图标,不得故意遮挡、剪裁修改图片、水印及图标。 Wiki User: Topjabot 2011/12/11 visited Flickr FotoosVanRobin Flickr redpolkadot Flickr ckngai123 Flickr ruifipieggio It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Wikispecies Doronenko 2011/12/12 visited 中國植物圖像庫 (Plant Photo Bank of China)版權申明: 若用于教学目的时使用本站图片需完整保留本站图标,不得故意遮挡、剪裁修改图片、水印及图标。

47 Work Licensing Author/Source
Picasa Sian Liu https://picasaweb.google.com/lh/view?imglic=creative_commons&psc=G&uname= &q=%E8%96%84%E8%8D%B7&filter=1# 2011/12/12 visited Flickr Zanthia Wiki Schizhao This work is from the Committee on Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Health, Executive Yuan The original source is from Executive Yuan (行政院), so this work is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 50 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 行政院著作權聲明:本院網站上所刊載以本院名義公開發表之著作,即著作人為本院者,在合理範圍內,得重製、公開播送或公開傳輸;利用時,並請註明出處。 Flickr Christabelle‧迴紋針 Wiki NIH https://picasaweb.google.com/lh/view?q=%E5%B7%9D%E8%8A%8E&uname= &psc=G&filter=1&imglic=creative_commons# Wiki Ulf Eliasson National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 行政院著作權聲明:

48 Work Licensing Author/Source 京都念慈菴 photo by Wiki Cybergoth 2011/12/11 visited Flickr tanakawho 2011/12/12 visited Wiki User: Oldie 2011/12/11/ visited 正露丸 photo by Flickr LiuTao Wiki Extvia Wiki Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen Wiki Kurt Stüber Wiki Stickpen Wiki Batholith (talk) Flickr Abura Yu 2011/12/13 visited

49 Work Licensing Author/Source National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Flickr ezezfun 2011/12/13 visited Flickr xamous Picasa 曾坤發 https://picasaweb.google.com/lh/view?q=仙草&uname= &psc=G&filter=1&imglic=creative_commons# Flickr Jimmy.White 2011/12/12 visited Wiki User: takoradee Wiki Onlymyself65536

50 Work Licensing Author/Source Wiki David.Monniaux 2011/12/13 visited Flickr JimmyHsu / 毛導 National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Flickr Patricia W. 2011/12/14 visited Flickr ting0308 Flickr lumei Wiki User: Minesweeper Picasa Art Vogel https://picasaweb.google.com/lh/view?q=Ziziphus+jujuba&uname= &psc=G&filter=1&hl=zh-TW&imglic=creative_commons# Wiki Sanjay Acharya

51 Work Licensing Author/Source Wiki DryPot 2011/12/14 visited Wiki User: Sanjay Ach Wiki AlbertCahalan Picasa Rosa Aleida Restrepo Becerra https://picasaweb.google.com/lh/view?q=soybean&uname= &psc=G&filter=1&imglic=creative_commons# Wiki Richard W.M. Jones Flickr stu spivack Wiki Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen Flickr EtherH Wiki Wikimol

52 Work Licensing Author/Source Wiki Uploader: lateasquirrel 2011/12/14 visited Flickr shihwy1 Wiki W.A. Djatmiko (Wie146) Wiki User: Markalexander100 Wiki User: BorgQueen Wiki User: KayEss Flickr Ray Yu Flickr The Boreka Diary

53 Work Licensing Author/Source Flickr xx3734 2011/12/14 visited Flickr *嘟嘟嘟* Flickr tenz1225 Picasa 和碩睿親王 https://picasaweb.google.com/lh/view?q=%E7%94%98%E8%94%97&uname= &psc=G&filter=1&imglic=creative_commons# Flickr PipperL


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