Presentation on theme: "Bony Fish Chapter 12.3-12.4. Bony Fish Phylum Cordata – Class Osteichthyes About 95% of all the fish on Earth belong to this Class. Bony fish are vertebrates."— Presentation transcript:
Bony Fish Phylum Cordata – Class Osteichthyes About 95% of all the fish on Earth belong to this Class. Bony fish are vertebrates and their backbone is composed of individual bones called vertebrae.
Fish Parts Brain Lateral Line Organ Swim Bladder Dorsal Fin Caudal Fin Anal Fin Stomach Heart Gills
Fish Anatomy Fish are covered with loosely attached scales. Their skin also secretes a mucus over their skin. The 2 purposes of this mucus are: 1.A barrier against infection. 2.Reduce friction while traveling through the water. The rings in a fishes scales indicate the fish’s age, just like the rings on a tree or clam shell.
Fish Respiration Gills, located on the side of the body, are covered by the operculum. This covering opens and closes every time a fish breathes. A fish breathes by opening its mouth, where oxygenated water goes in and over the gills. The oxygen diffuses into the gills and carbon dioxide out. The carbon dioxide filled water out through gills Fish do not get food into their gills because gill rakers channel incoming food into esophagus
Fish Movement Fish are nekton, which means they can swim. The fins of a fish are paired and work together. The pectoral fins are similar to the forelimbs of animals. The pelvic fins are similar in structure to hindlimbs. The functions of the following fins are: – Pectoral and pelvicUp, down, forward, backwards – Dorsal and anal finStabilization
Fish Movement con’t Some fish, such as the swordfish (the fastest), the tuna (2 nd fastest), dolphinfish (3 rd fastest), and the barracuda (4 th fastest), live in open water and are therefore called pelagic. “Fusiform shape” means streamlined like a torpedo Torpedoes and submarines have this shape because it reduces friction in the water The caudal fin is used for thrust Fish are ectothermic, or Cold –blooded – they take temp of surrounding water
Fish buoyancy Fish need to rest occasionally. They are buoyant. Their swim bladder makes them buoyant This structure works by filling up with water, so the fish sinks. The fish gets rid of water and fills with gas to float
Feeding and Digestion Some ways that bony fish feed? Straining: Strain food from water with gill rakers Sucking: Suck food in Beaklike bills: Actively bite things Predatory: Hunt and eat Digestion is one-way. Nutrients brought to the body’s cells by the blood. Fish have a 2- chambered heart.
Sensitivity to Environment Fish hear with their inner ear which is located behind brain with opening on skin They have a good sense of smell with nostrils connected to pits with sensitive nerve endings Fish have eyes on side of head, in most cases. Fish who live in clear water have the best color vision.
Reproduction Fish reproduce sexually with external fertilization (spawning) The 5 stages of typical fish formation are: – Fertilized egg – early embryo – embryo fish – yolk sac larva – young fish
Strange Adaptations Porcupine fish: Inflates body and has sharp protruding spines to discourage predators from swallowing Flounder: Flat and patterned like ocean bottom. Both eyes on one side of the head. Camoflage Sea horse: Wraps tail around seaweed to stay in one place. Male gets pregnant.
Coelacanth: Paddlelike fins to crawl around ocean bottom Flying fish: Can fly out of water for up to 100 meters 10 meters above surface to escape predators. Deep sea anglerfish: Biolumiescence – catch prey with lure Mola: BIG – slow – lay 300million eggs at a time