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Results of a Passive Tick Surveillance System in Alberta Allison N Scott, Daniel Fitzgerald, Lisa Lachance, Kimberley Simmonds, and the Arthropod-Borne.

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Presentation on theme: "Results of a Passive Tick Surveillance System in Alberta Allison N Scott, Daniel Fitzgerald, Lisa Lachance, Kimberley Simmonds, and the Arthropod-Borne."— Presentation transcript:

1 Results of a Passive Tick Surveillance System in Alberta Allison N Scott, Daniel Fitzgerald, Lisa Lachance, Kimberley Simmonds, and the Arthropod-Borne Diseases Committee (AABDC) Government of Alberta 2014 Canadian Public Health Association Conference Toronto, Ontario May 29, 2014

2 Collaborators Agriculture and Rural Development, GOA Rashed Cassis Daniel Fitzgerald Alberta Health, GOA Dean Blue Patti Kowalski Lisa Lachance Martin Lavoie Kimberley Simmonds Theresa St. Jean 2 The Arthropod-Borne Diseases Committee Alberta Health Services Lance Honish First Nations and Inuit Health Branch And Many More!

3 Outline Ticks & Lyme Disease Tick Surveillance Program in Alberta Results Discussion & Next Steps 3

4 Ticks & Lyme Disease 4

5 Lyme Disease Borrelia burgdorferi –Vector: Ixodes spp ticks Identified in 1976 in Lyme, Connecticut –Cluster of juvenile arthritis cases Multi-system inflammatory disease –Early symptoms: Rash, headache, fever, fatigue –Can affect heart, joints, brain –Small number of patients can have pain, fatigue, or other symptoms chronically after treatment Best if treated early 5 _burgdorferi ks/symptoms.html

6 Lyme Disease – Key Point 6 Can be difficult to diagnosis as the symptoms can be non-specific, especially if characteristic rash absent Knowing that the individual has been in an endemic area and exposed to ticks is important for diagnosis

7 Ixodes scapularis 7 Black-Legged Tick –Carrier of Borrelia burgdorferi Feeding –Insert mouthparts –Several days Drop off

8 Ixodes spp Ticks 8 Endemic in the United States Establishing themselves in Eastern Canada Climate change: warm, mixed forest/grassland Ogden 2014 CCDR Volume 40-5

9 Adventitious Tick: Going where no Ixodes has gone before 9 One method of spread: migratory birds Flyway over Edmonton Key: Suitable habitat to overwinter/reproduce birding.about.comodbirdingbasicsssNorth-America-Migration-Flyways.htm

10 Tick Surveillance Program 10

11 Objectives: 1.Determine if Ixodes ticks can be found in Alberta 2.Determine the percentage of Ixodes ticks that carry Borrelia burgdorferi 3.Utilize geographic information to pick sites for active surveillance 11

12 Passive Surveillance 12 Companion Animals Veterinarian Humans and the Environment AHS Environmental Health Office Agriculture and Rural Development Lab Alberta Health

13 Methods 13 Standardized lab methods –Dichotomous identification key to speciate ticks –Established PCR protocol utilized to identify Borrelia burgdorferi Descriptive statistics (SAS) Mapped postal code of residence (ARC GIS) Restricted to hosts that were Alberta residents and had not travelled in the previous 2 weeks. Finding nymph or larva would suggest a population capable of reproducing

14 Results 14

15 Results 15 All Tick species Ixodes species B. burgdorferi positive Ixodes spp Total Ticks Submitted (18%)27 (16%) Ticks Submitted by Alberta Residents With No Travel Outside of Alberta (24%)25 (18%) Tick Submitted by Alberta Residents With No Travel (28%)21 (20%) Only adult Ixodes ticks found from individuals who had not travelled

16 Results 16 54% of Ixodes ticks submitted by Alberta residents with no travel history reside in Edmonton Zone –Submitter’s Postal Code of Residence –No travel in previous two weeks

17 Results 17 Submitter’s Postal Code of Residence No travel in previous two weeks

18 Discussion & Next Steps 18

19 Discussion 19 Ixodes ticks found in Alberta Mostly in Edmonton Zone 20% of Ixodes positive for Borrelia burgdorferi Only adults found But more than one tick likely acquired in certain areas

20 Active Surveillance Triggered 20 CriteriaReasonable EvidenceStrong Evidence Same Submitter *  1 or more nymph or larval blacklegged ticks  >1 blacklegged tick of any stage from the same person or animal in a suitable environment Different Submitter*  >1 blacklegged tick of any stage from a different submitter in a suitable environment  >2 blacklegged tick submissions of any stage found at least 1 year apart AND  The ticks were found in a suitable environment Human Cases  Single locally acquired human case  Cluster of locally acquired human cases * In the same location. The location is in the same town, city or geographic area not defined by a specific surface area size.

21 Active Surveillance for Ticks 21 Drag sampling 5 sites weekly, May-June 2014 If Ixodes found: Heightened Active Surveillance Likely include small mammal trapping

22 Strengths and Limitations Strengths: –Strong partnership between Alberta Agriculture, Alberta Health Services, and Alberta Health –Collaborating with municipalities Limitations: –Residential postal codes, not locations –Unable to interview companion animal owners –Postal codes for companion animals currently only available for 2013 –Small sample size 22

23 Next Steps 23 Active surveillance Changes to forms –Enhanced information on outdoor locations pets/people had been in previous two weeks Continued passive surveillance –Increase sample sizes Enhanced advertising for 2014 season

24 Questions? 24

25 Ixodes spp – Life cycle 25 CDC

26 Tick Surveillance 26 Surveillance: –“Systematic ongoing collection, collation, and analysis of data and the timely dissemination of information to those who need to know so that action can be taken.” Passive Surveillance and Active Surveillance Last, John M A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 4 th edition. Oxford University Press, Inc

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