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NERDS 2012 Pre-Session #1 Content Lecture: Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology Dr. Jennifer Hollander Dr. Jeffrey Baguley.

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Presentation on theme: "NERDS 2012 Pre-Session #1 Content Lecture: Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology Dr. Jennifer Hollander Dr. Jeffrey Baguley."— Presentation transcript:

1 NERDS 2012 Pre-Session #1 Content Lecture: Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology Dr. Jennifer Hollander Dr. Jeffrey Baguley

2 Outline Climate and Life Zones of the Sierra Nevada Plants – Gymnosperms – Angiosperms Animals Plant-Animal Interactions Aquatic Organisms

3 Basic physics of the atmosphere Rule #1 – Warm air holds more water Rule #2 – Warm air rises, cold air falls Regional climates are determined by a combination of factors, most of which are influenced by these rules.

4 Hadley cells Subtropical high: arid

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8 8 Ecosystems in the Sierra Nevada – affected by elevation and precipitation Lodgepole forest Whitebark pine/ white fir Jeffrey pine

9 Plants

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11 Gymnosperm Characteristics “Naked seed” – seeds mature in cones Found primarily in the Northern Hemisphere Conifers (largest Gymnosperm group) and Ephedra have modified leaf structures and can carry on photosynthesis in the winter (no leaves to drop)

12 Angiosperm Characteristics Flowers! – The function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit – Angiosperms are often classified based on their flowers (shape, number of petals, etc.) Fruit – Ovary which encases the seeds – May serve to attract dispersers

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14 Two major types of angiosperms

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16 We will talk about specific species of animals during the second pre-session Today we are focusing on the bigger picture, and groups of animals that are involved in dispersing seeds of forest plants

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18 Order Rodentia 40% of all mammal species Characterized by two continuously growing incisors in upper and lower jaw – Kept short by gnawing

19 Squirrels Sciuridae ( Spermophilus or Ammospermophilus ) Small to medium sized rodents found worldwide Live in almost every habitat Mostly eat seeds, however some squirrels are known to be omnivorous at times

20 Chipmunks Sciuridae ( Tamias or Eutamias ) Small, striped mammals in squirrel family All species (except one) are found in N. America Omnivorous, but collect and store seeds for winter us

21 Other Rodents

22 Community Ecology In ecology, a community is a group of two or more populations of a different species Community ecology study the interactions between species in a community There are many different types of species interaction, including some that involve multiple species

23 Some types of species interactions Competition – species may compete with each other for finite resources Predation – using another species for food (not always “hunting” them) Mutualism – an interaction between species in which both species benefit Parasitism – one organism benefits (the parasite) at the expense of the other (the host)

24 Plant-Animal Interactions Pollination Seed dispersal

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26 Frugivory Frugivorous animals (primarily birds) disperse seeds by eating fruits and then defecating the seeds in a microsite conducive to germination and emergence

27 Seed Caching Larderhoard Scatterhoard

28 Seed caching resulting in dispersal Seed caching animals disperse seeds by storing them for winter, and then “forgetting” to retrieve them. The seeds must be placed in a microsite conducive to germination and emergence.

29 Watersheds The entire land mass that drains into a given stream or river system. The Feather River watershed includes catchments for the various tributaries of the Feather and Yuba Rivers.

30 Terrestrial/Aquatic Commonalities Every living organism needs to eat something. – Photosynthesis fuels the food webs Every living organism needs to reproduce. Organisms will interact with each other in multiple ways. – Competition, predation, symbiosis, etc. While some organisms are exclusively aquatic or terrestrial, others depend on both habitats.

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32 Bacteria & Cyanobacteria Unicellular prokaryotic organisms Bacteria are important decomposers and recyclers of organic and inorganic wastes Cyanobacteria may be important for photosynthesis, but blooms may also be an indication of poor ecosystem health.

33 Protists Unicellular (and some multicellular) eukaryotes Some are photosynthetic Some are heterotrophic Some mixotrophic

34 Phytoplankton and Benthic Microalgae Euglena Diatoms Crysophytes Dinoflagelates

35 Plants & Macroalgae “Macrophytes” There are several types of freshwater aquatic plants that are an important source of photosynthesis and also habitat in aquatic ecosystems. Macroalgae are multicellular protists (not plants)

36 Plants and Macroalgae Red AlgaeGreen Algae

37 Animals Multicellular eukaryotes – Invertebrates – Vertebrates

38 Porifera Sponges – Simplest – Evolutionarily oldest – Lack symmetry – Lack true tissues Ancestral colonial choanoflagellate Eumetazoa Bilateria Deuterostomia Porifera Cnidaria Other bilaterians (including Nematoda, Arthropoda, Mollusca, and Annelida) Echinodermata Chordata

39 Porifera Anatomy

40 Phylum Cnidaria Corals, anemones, hydroids, jellyfish – Eumetazoa – Radial symetry – True tissues – Diploblastic Ancestral colonial choanoflagellate Eumetazoa Bilateria Deuterostomia Porifera Cnidaria Other bilaterians (including Nematoda, Arthropoda, Mollusca, and Annelida) Echinodermata Chordata

41 Cnidaria Form/Function Polyp and Medusa – Gastrovasular cavity Digestion Water exchange Gas exchange – Tentacles Cnidocytes with nematocysts Capture prey or detrital particles

42 Bilaterally Symmetrical Animals Ancestral colonial choanoflagellate Eumetazoa Bilateria Deuterostomia Porifera Cnidaria Other bilaterians (including Nematoda, Arthropoda, Mollusca, and Annelida) Echinodermata Chordata Invertebrate Phyla – Platyhelminthes – Mollusca – Annelida – Nematoda – Arthropoda

43 Phylum Platyhelminthes “Flat worms” – Acoelomates – Mostly free-living – Mostly marine – Some freshwater – Some parasitic A freshwater turbellarian

44 Phylum Mollusca – Includes snails and slugs, oysters and clams, and octopi and squids Most mollusks are marine – Though some inhabit fresh water and some are terrestrial In freshwater habitats you will find: – Gastropods (snails) – Bivalves (clams & mussels) Phylum Mollusca

45 Gastropods About three-quarters of all living species of molluscs – Belong to class Gastropoda

46 Bivalves Molluscs of class Bivalvia – Include many species of clams, mussels, etc. – Have a shell divided into two halves – Suspension (filter) & deposit feeders

47 Phylum Annelida Annelids are segmented worms Annelids – Have bodies composed of a series of fused rings

48 Oligochaetes Oligochaetes (class Oligochaeta) – Are named for their relatively sparse setae, or bristles made of chitin – Include the earthworms and a variety of freshwater and marine species

49 Leeches Members of class Hirudinea – Are blood-sucking parasites, such as leeches Figure 33.25

50 Phylum Nematoda The round worms Ubiquitous – found everywhere – Marine, freshwater, terrestrial, some even live in polar ice. – It has been said that if you eliminated all of the structure on the earth, but left the nematodes behind, you would see a grey shadow of that structure. 1,000,000+ species estimated globally

51 Phylum Arthropoda Probably the most successful phylum of all animals – Approximately – individuals – 2,000,000+ species (insects and crustaceans account for most) Two out of every three known species of animals are arthropods Members of the phylum Arthropoda are found in all of Earth’s habitats

52 General Characteristics of Arthropods Arthropods are segmented coelomates that have an exoskeleton and jointed appendages The diversity and success of arthropods – largely related to their segmentation, hard exoskeleton, and jointed appendages

53 Insects Subphylum Hexapoda, insects and their relatives – Are more species-rich than most other forms of life – Live in almost every terrestrial habitat and in fresh water

54 Notable Freshwater Insects Mayfly Nymph Stonefly Nymph Caddisfly larva Caddisfly Adult Chironomid Larva Chironomid Adult

55 Crustaceans While arachnids and insects thrive on land – Crustaceans, for the most part, have remained in marine and freshwater environments Crustaceans (subphylum Crustacea) – Typically have branched, appendages that are extensively specialized for feeding and locomotion

56 Decapods are all relatively large crustaceans – And include lobsters, crabs, crayfish, and shrimp

57 Invertebrates Come in All Sizes Meiofauna Macrofauna Megafauna mm – 0.5 mm Live on surface or within sediment, small enough to live between sand grains 0.5 mm – 5 cm Live on surface or burrow within sediment (most are less one centimeter). 5 cm, easily see with naked eye

58 A theoretical phylogeny of chordates

59 Vertebrates Amphibians Reptiles Fish Birds

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