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Parasitology. What is a parasite? Definition: –An animal which lives in (endoparasite) or on (ectoparasite) another animal (the host). –Is almost always.

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Presentation on theme: "Parasitology. What is a parasite? Definition: –An animal which lives in (endoparasite) or on (ectoparasite) another animal (the host). –Is almost always."— Presentation transcript:

1 Parasitology

2 What is a parasite? Definition: –An animal which lives in (endoparasite) or on (ectoparasite) another animal (the host). –Is almost always a different species from the host –Depends on the host for food an causes some degree of injury

3 General characteristics Tremendous reproductive capabilities Have physical adaptations that enhance attachment to the host (i.e. suckers, hooks or clamps) Possess various mechanisms for avoiding the host’s immune response Exhibit complex life cycles often with multiple hosts

4 Typical Indirect parasite life cycle Primary Host Adult stage parasite infects host Egg/Spore Stage Transmission and spread into the environment Intermediate host Growth and developmental stage (may not cause damage to the host) Infective larvae Able to infect primary host

5 Negative affects on the host Direct damage to host –inducing tissue and organ damage Indirect effects –Stress causes an increase susceptibility to secondary infections –Direct damage can act as a portal for secondary infection –Parasite may serve as a carrier/vector for another viral/bacterial pathogen

6 Signs of Parasitic infections Fish at surface gulping or piping –Suggests parasites on gills Fish rolling/flashing – suggests protozoan or worm infestation (internal or external) Lethargy or listlessness –Suggests gill parasite Fish at bottom –Suggests gill parasite, especially “Ich” Fin erosion/Lesions –Indicative of external parasite Flared gills –Indicative of gill parasite Excess mucus, fish “shimmies”/quivers, or is off feed –General indication of disease

7 Major Groups of Fish Parasites Protozoa: single celled animals Monogenetic Trematodes: Flukes (flatworms) with haptor (posterior attachment organ) and have a simple life cycle (no intermediate host) Digenetic Trematodes: Flukes (flatworms) with oral/ventral suckers and exhibit complex life cycles (involve intermediate hosts)

8 Major Groups of Fish Parasites Cestodes (Tapeworms): worms with flattened/segmented bodies, head usually has suckers/hooks/suctional grooves Nematodes (Roundworms): Thin elongated worms with cylindrical bodies covered by a rigid cuticle Acanthocephala (Spiny-headed worms): bodies cylindrical or fattened with anterior end bearing elaborate hooked proboscis

9 Major Groups of Fish Parasites Copepods: crustaceans (sea lice) that may appear louse, worm, or grub like Leeches: flattened or cylindrical, body segmented with anterior/posterior suckers Glochidia: larval freshwater clams Fungi: either as spores or as fungal hyphae

10 External Protozoa Flagellates –Ichthyobodo (Costia) Ciliates –Ichthyophthirius multifilis (“Ich”) Trichodinids Epistylis

11 External Protozoa Common and usually occur in low numbers Dense populations can cause serious epizootics (usually caused by some form of stress) Symptoms include: -Irritation(flashing)-Erosion of scales -Erythema (reddening)-Hemorrhaging -Excess mucus production-white spots on skin Control by chemical treatment

12 Internal Protozoa Myxobolus cerebralis (whirling disease) Ceratomyxa shasta Henneguya

13 Myxobolus cerebralis Infects cultured and wild salmonids Specific tropism for cartilage Infection can result in axial skeleton and neural damage

14 Typical Indirect parasite life cycle Primary Host Adult stage parasite infects host Egg/Spore Stage Transmission and spread into the environment Intermediate host Growth and developmental stage (may not cause damage to the host) Infective larvae Able to infect primary host

15 Ceratomyxa shasta Myxosporea Found in marine and freshwater environments Only infects salmonids Susceptibility varies Clinical signs vary among infected salmonid species Identified by spore size, shape, and location

16 Henneguya Myxosporea Ovoid, spherical, or lenticular spores Usually cysts form around spores

17 morphologically distinct spores are genetically identical landmark discovery by Wolf & Markiw in 1984 a fish myxosporean alternates with an actinosporean from an oligochaete worm both spore types represent alternate lifecycle stages of the one organism General Myxosporidean lifecycles

18 Presumptive ID: Wet preparation Histology Site of infection Spore morphology Confirmation of ID: Molecular methods Any level of infection, all stages, definitive General Diagnostic Procedure

19 Trematodes

20 Monogenetic –Gyrodactylus sp. Digenetic –Bolbophorus damnificus is often referred to as the “catfish trematode” Misnomer because there are about 30 trematodes found in the channel catfish and because it is also found in the fathead minnow

21 Digenetic Trematodes A)Adult flukes reside in fish, birds, or mammals B)Flukes lay eggs that pass through the definitive host, eggs hatch to a ciliated miracidia C)The miracidia will develop to a cercariae if in contact with a snail or mussel D)If the cercariae contacts invertabrate of fish host it will encyst as a metacercaria

22 Cestodes A)GI tract of fish, bird or Mammal B)Eggs are laid to water and are eaten or hatch into a coracidium (C) and are then eaten by an invertebrate host C)Larval development to a proceroid or a pleroceroid occurs invertebrate D)Final host becomes infected by ingesting invertebrate

23 A. colex of Bothriocephalus acheilognathii from carp, Transvaal, South Africa (by courtesy of J.G. Van As). B. B. acheilognathii, whole worm (living) from farmed carp, Israel. C. Embryonated eggs of b. D. Ligula sp. from Rastrineobola argenteus from L. Victoria. Infected fish are recognized by their inflated abdomen (top fish) and may accommodate even three worms (bottom group).

24 C. philippinensis adult C. philippinensis egg Nematodes

25 Unembryonated eggs are passed in the stool (1) and become embryonated in the environment (2); after ingestion by freshwater fish, larvae hatch, penetrate the intestine, and migrate to the tissues (3). Ingestion of raw or undercooked fish results in infection (4). The adults reside in the human small intestine mucosa (5). The females deposit unembryonated eggs (can become embryonated) (6). Also infects fish eating birds (7). Capillaria philippinensis

26 A) GI tract of Fish, Acanthor larva released B) Eaten by invertebrates and produces a cystacanth (C) D)If eaten by suitable host, the cystacanth will develop into an adult Acanthocephala

27 Adult female Neoechinorhynchus rutili Adult male

28 Leeches (Hirudinea) Leech with brood attached Top view

29 Leech Characteristics Primarily occur in freshwater Most are predators or scavengers which feed on fluids or soft tissues of live or dead invertebrates Generally have 34 body segments and an anterior and posterior sucker Parasitic leeches attach temporarily Cause little noticeable harm

30 Hirudinea Problems Hemorrhaging Inflammation Edema Ulceration Fibrosis Hyperplasia Necrosis Irritation Weight loss Some can be vectors of other parasites

31 Copepods Salmonicola sp. Lernaea sp.

32 Copepods are a subclass of Crustaceans Sexes are usually separate – with sexual dimorphism present Heavy infections can cause severe damage to skin, muscle, and gill tissues Can also lead to secondary infections, anemia, emaciation, and mortality

33 Copepoda A)Mature copepods release eggs (B) that hatch to larvae (C) D) After molting a copepod stage is formed and may attach to a host (E)

34 Glochidia Larvae attach to gills or skin Live as parasites then drop off and live independently Some modify mantle tissue to help find host

35 Glochidia Lampsilis reeveianaGlochidia attaching to gill tissue

36 Fungi Saprolegnia “water molds” –Worldwide in freshwater –Appear as whitish cottony-like growths –Considered secondary invaders –Can attach to eggs and fish –Can be controlled with chemicals

37 Aphanomyces invadans Hyphae Sporangia 1° Zoospore 2° Zoospore Cyst Germination Sporulation 1º cyst


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