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Introduction to Animals

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Animals"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Animals

2 Characteristics All multicellular & eukaryotic
Cells lack cell walls and come in a variety of shapes. Ingestive heterotrophs (take in food and internally digest it).

3 Characteristics cont’d
Have some type of skeletal support Exoskeletons found in arthropods cover the outside of the body but limit size. Endoskeletons found in all vertebrates are found inside the body and are made of cartilage and/or bone.

4 Characteristics Cont’d
Worms have fluid-filled internal cavities giving them skeletal support. Sponges have the simplest skeleton. May be sessile (attached and non-moving) or motile (able to move around).

5 Characteristics Cont’d
Muscular tissue provides energy for movement. Reproduces sexually. Shows levels of organization including cell, tissue, organ, and system.

6 Characteristics Cont’d
Most show division of labor among cells. Cells are specialized for particular functions. Cell junctions hold individual cells in a tissue together. They link neighboring cells. Most vertebrates have a backbone or spine made of repeating bones called vertebrae that protect the spinal cord. Some show cephalization (have a head with sensory organs concentrated there).

7 Invertebrate Groups Simplest animals
Contains the greatest number of animal species Most found in water Do not have a backbone Includes sponges, cnidarians, flatworms, roundworms, annelids (segmented worms), mollusks, arthropods, and echinoderms.

8 Vertebrate Groups More complex animals Most have a backbone
Includes fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.

9 Body Areas Dorsal is the back or upper surface
Ventral is the belly or lower surface Anterior head or front end Posterior is the tail or hind end opposite the head Oral surface in echinoderms is where the mouth is located (underside) Aboral surface in echinoderms is the surface opposite the mouth

10 Body Areas: (Most Animals)

11 Symmetry copyright cmassengale

12 Body Symmetry Also called asymmetrical

13 Body Symmetry Symmetry is the arrangement of body parts around a central plane or axis Asymmetry occurs when the body can’t be divided into similar sections (sponges) copyright cmassengale

14 Body Symmetry Radial symmetry occurs when body parts are arranged around a central point like spokes on a wheel (echinoderms) Most animals with radial symmetry are sessile (attached) or sedentary (move very little) copyright cmassengale

15 copyright cmassengale

16 Body Symmetry Bilateral symmetry occurs when animals can be divided into equal halves along a single plane Organisms will have right and left sides that are mirror images of each other More complex type of symmetry copyright cmassengale

17 Body Symmetry Animals with bilateral symmetry are usually motile
Animals have an anterior and posterior ends Show cephalization (concentration of sensory organs on the head or anterior end) copyright cmassengale

18 copyright cmassengale

19 Segmentation copyright cmassengale

20 Segmentation Occurs whenever animal bodies are divided into repeating units or segments Found in more complex animals Earthworms show external segmentation, while humans show internal segmentation (vertebrae of the backbone) Segments may be fused together such as cephalothorax covering chest & head of a crayfish

21 Segmentation cephalothorax copyright cmassengale

22 Tissue Development copyright cmassengale

23 Tissue Development Cont’d
All animals reproduce sexually, but some also reproduce asexually (sponges bud & flatworms fragment) Zygote is the fertilized egg all animals form from Zygote undergoes rapid cell divisions known as cleavage to become hollow ball of cells called blastula Blastocoel is the central cavity of the blastula

24 Tissue Development Cont’d
Blastula folds inward at one point to form an opening & two cell or germ layers; process called gastrulation New cup-shaped structure with 2 cell layers is called the gastrula Archenteron is the deep cavity of the gastrula that forms the primitive gut Blastula

25 Tissue Development Cont’d
Inner germ layer called endoderm & outer germ layer called ectoderm Opening may become the mouth or the anus Protostomes (mollusks, arthropods, & annelids) develop mouth from blastopore, while deuterostomes (echinoderms & vertebrates) develop an anus from blastopore

26 Tissue Dev. Cont’d Some animals form a third germ layer in the middle called mesoderm Cells differentiation during development changing their shapes to fit their function ( neurons or nerve cells become long to conduct messages)

27 Germ Layers Form tissues, organs, & systems NOT present in sponges
Ectoderm (outer) – forms skin, nerves, sense organs Endoderm (inner) – forms liver and lungs Mesoderm (middle) – forms muscles & other systems copyright cmassengale

28 Body Layers Sponges have NO tissues or organs, only specialized cells
Cnidarians like jellyfish & coral have only two body layers & one body opening (mouth/anus) into gastrovascular cavity Cnidarians have outer epidermis & inner gastrodermis with jelly-like mesoglea between the layers copyright cmassengale

29 Body Layers All worms, mollusks, arthropods, echinoderms, and vertebrates have three cell layers Ectoderm Endoderm Mesoderm copyright cmassengale

30 Embryonic Cleavage copyright cmassengale

31 Cleavage Cleavage – rapid mitosis (cell division) of zygote
Radial Cleavage – cells divide parallel or perpendicular to axis to each other copyright cmassengale

32 Cleavage Spiral Cleavage – cellular divisions occur diagonally, in a twisting pattern copyright cmassengale

33 copyright cmassengale

34 Stages of Development copyright cmassengale

35 Larval Forms Animals with Indirect development go through immature (larval) forms Larva does NOT resemble adult Cnidarian (jellyfish, coral, & sea anemone) larva called Planula copyright cmassengale

36 Larval Forms Mollusk (squid & octopus) larva called trochophore
Echinoderm (starfish) larva is called Dipleurula copyright cmassengale

37 Metamorphosis Usually found in arthropods
May be complete or incomplete Incomplete Metamorphosis: egg nymph adult Complete Metamorphosis: egg larva pupa adult copyright cmassengale

38 Metamorphosis COMPLETE INCOMPLETE copyright cmassengale

39 Body Cavities copyright cmassengale

40 Coelom - Body Cavity Internal body cavity fully lined with mesoderm
Body organs suspended in this cavity copyright cmassengale

41 Coelom - Body Cavity Acoelomate animals have solid bodies filled with cells Acoelomate animals include sponges, cnidarians, & flatworms copyright cmassengale

42 Coelom - Body Cavity Pseudocoelomate animals (roundworms) have a functional body cavity NOT fully lined with mesoderm copyright cmassengale

43 Animal Systems copyright cmassengale

44 Support Systems Spongin & spicules (sponges) Limestone cases (corals)
Exoskeletons of Chitin (arthropods) Limits size Must be shed or molted to grow Animal vulnerable to predators during molting copyright cmassengale

45 Support Systems Hydrostatic skeleton – fluid filled body cavity (worms) Inner Calcium plates or Test (echinoderms) Bone and/or cartilage endoskeleton (vertebrates) copyright cmassengale

46 Exoskeletons Must Be Molted

47 Endoskeletons Grow with the Animal

48 Digestive Systems All animals are ingestive heterotrophs
Choanocytes (specialized cells) capture & digest food for sponges Gastrovascular cavity with one opening in cnidarians and flatworms for food to enter & leave; called two-way digestive system copyright cmassengale

49 Gastrovascular Cavity with Mouth Only (Cnidarians)

50 Two-Way Digestion copyright cmassengale

51 Digestive Systems Animals with a one-way digestive system have a mouth and an anus Food enters the mouth, continues in one direction through the digestive tract, and wastes leave through the anus Includes annelids, arthropods, & vertebrates copyright cmassengale

52 One-Way Digestion Mouth anus copyright cmassengale

53 Circulatory Systems Transports oxygen & nutrients to cells
Carries away wastes & carbon dioxide from cells Sponges, cnidarians, & flatworms do NOT have circulatory systems copyright cmassengale

54 Circulatory Systems In closed circulation, blood remains inside blood vessels until it reaches cells (annelids & vertebrates) In open circulation, blood is pumped out of blood vessels to bathe tissues in the body cavity or hemocoel (arthropods & mollusks) copyright cmassengale

55 Open Circulation Closed Circulation
copyright cmassengale

56 Respiratory System Taking in O2 & releasing CO2
Gases can diffuse across moist surfaces (earthworms) Gills filter O2 from water (aquatic animals) Lungs take O2 from air (terrestrial animals) copyright cmassengale

57 Skin breather Gills Lungs copyright cmassengale

58 Nervous System Coordinates the activities of the animal’s body
Neurons – nerve cells that transmit electrochemical signals Nerve net - network of neurons, very little coordination Ganglion – clusters of neurons; may serve as a simple brain Brain – control center at anterior end copyright cmassengale

59 copyright cmassengale

60 Excretory System Excretion is the removal of nitrogen wastes from the body Diffusion is used by simple aquatic animals Flame cells remove wastes in flatworms copyright cmassengale

61 Excretory System Coiled tubules called nephridia remove nitrogen wastes in arthropods Terrestrial animals remove wastes with Kidneys May be paired (most vertebrates) May be single as in birds copyright cmassengale

62 copyright cmassengale

63 Reproductive System Reproduction is the process by which organisms make more of their own kind All animals reproduce by sexual reproduction (produce eggs and sperm) Some animals also use asexual reproduction creating identical offspring copyright cmassengale

64 Types of Animal Asexual Reproduction
Regeneration or Fragmentation is the breaking off of pieces and the re- growth of a new organism Found in simple animals like Sponges and Flatworms copyright cmassengale

65 Budding occurs in hydra whenever a growth on the parent is released
Creates a clone copyright cmassengale

66 Komodo dragon is an example
Parthenogenesis – females produce eggs that develop unfertilized into female organisms Komodo dragon is an example copyright cmassengale

67 Most hermaphrodites do NOT fertilize their own eggs
Hermaphrodite are animals like earthworms that produce BOTH eggs and sperm Most hermaphrodites do NOT fertilize their own eggs Mate to exchange sperm copyright cmassengale

68 Fertilization External – sperm and eggs are released into water where they are fertilized Internal – sperm and egg are fertilized inside the female animal’s body copyright cmassengale

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