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 Born December 6 th, 1888 › Died August 3 rd, 1969 (after the Hippies)  Received a B.A. in 1910  Ph.D. in 1915  Research assistant to Prof. Charles.

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Presentation on theme: " Born December 6 th, 1888 › Died August 3 rd, 1969 (after the Hippies)  Received a B.A. in 1910  Ph.D. in 1915  Research assistant to Prof. Charles."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Born December 6 th, 1888 › Died August 3 rd, 1969 (after the Hippies)  Received a B.A. in 1910  Ph.D. in 1915  Research assistant to Prof. Charles Manning Child › Studed under him earlier › Worked with him for SIXTEEN (16) years on his studies of lower invertebrates › Published over FORTY research articles.  Wrote two laboratory manuals › Laboratory Manual for Elementary Zoology (1919, 1929) › Laboratory Manual for Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (1922, 1942)

3  Life › Developed Parkinson’s disease during the 1950s  but continued her long work days  Was in a wheelchair, under the care of a nurse, when she completed the sixth volume of The Invertebrates  UNAFFECTIONATE MOTHER › Dun dun DUN!!!!!!   Professional › Hyman’s position at the University of Chicago ended  Department chair retired  No longer had a supporter in the department › According to Margaret W Rossiter  Other department members found her abrasive › May (probably) have been ostracized for her Jewish heritage › Abandonment occurred at the beginning of the depression  Increasing difficulty for woman to find jobs in sciences  Spent the next six years unaffiliated with any institution  Continued her research independently at the American Museum of Natural History › Recognizing need & worthiness of her research, the museum offered office space & laboratory in 1937 – UNPAID! › Despite obstacles, she persisted in preparation of the manuscripts for The Invertebrates. › In 1967, suffering from Parkinson's Disease and forced to discontinue work

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5  An analysis of the process of regeneration in certain microdrilous oligochaetes. J. Exp. Zool. 20:  Metabolic gradients in amoeba and their relation to the mechanism of amoeboid motion. J. Exp. ZooL 24:  A laboratory manual for elementary zoology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.  Physiological studies on planaria. III. Oxygen consumption in relation to age (size) differences. Biol. Bull. 37:  With C. M. Child. The axial gradients in hydrozoa. 1. Hydra. Biol. Bull. 36:  The axial gradients in hydrozoa. III. Experiments on the gradient of tubularia. Biol. Bull. 38:  A laboratory manual for comparative vertebrate anatomy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.  With B. H. Willier and S. A. Rifenburgh. Physiological studies on planaria. VI. A respiratory and histochemical study of the source of the increased metabolism after feeding. J. Exp. Zool. 40:  Respiratory differences along the axis of the sponge Grantia. Biol. Bull. 48:  The metabolic gradients of vertebrate embryos. II. The brook lamprey. J. Morphol. 42:  The metabolic gradients of vertebrate embryos. III. The chick. Biol. Bull. 52:1-38.  A laboratory manual for elementary zoology. 2d ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.  Studies on the morphology, taxonomy, and distribution of North American triclad turbellaria. IV Recent European revisions of the triclads and their application to the American forms, with a key to the latter and new notes on distribution. Trans. Am. Micros. Soc. 50:  Taxonomic studies on the hydras of North America. IV Description of three new species with a key to the known species. Trans. Am. Micros. Soc. 50:  Relation of oxygen tension to oxygen consumption in Nereis virens. J. Exp. Zool. 61:  The invertebrates. Vol. 1, Protozoa through ctenophora. New York: McGraw-Hill.  Observations and experiments on the physiology of medusae. Biol. Bull. 99:  Comparative vertebrate anatomy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.  The invertebrates. Vol. 2, Platyhelminthes and rhynchocoela. New York: McGraw-Hill.  The invertebrates. Vol. 3, Acanthocephala, oschelminthes, and entoprocta. New York: McGraw-Hill.  The polyclad flatworms of the Pacific coast of North America. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 100:  Posterior growth in annelids. Am. Nat. 87:  The invertebrates. Vol. 4, Echinodermata. New York: McGraw-Hill.  How many species? Syst. Zool. 4:  The invertebrates. Vol. 5, Smaller coelomate groups. New York: McGraw-Hill.  The invertebrates. Vol. 6, Mollusca I. New York: McGraw-Hill.

6  Strengths: › Critical approach: refuted over- generalized theories › Advocated an “open-minded” approach that did not just rely on older theories › Elegant writer  Weaknesses: › Often misunderstood:  changed her mind often  some contradictory statements in her writing › Major Biological Theories have changed over time

7  1920s!!! (and later)  Great Depression!!  Intellectual Zeitgeist

8  Pathway to Methods used in Psychology › Her Lab Manual!!!

9  MOST influential comparative invertebrate zoologist › Of the 20th century › In the English-speaking world  Conducted experimental research on the metabolic and developmental physiology of a host of invertebrates and vertebrate embryos › During the first part of her career  Views on invertebrate evolution and phylogeny have become widely incorporated into textbooks › Until very recently her ideas had been equated with ‘traditional’ or ‘classical’ views on animal evolution.  Enduring fame and significance for modern evo-devo is primarily based upon her magisterial six-volume series › The Invertebrates › Most encompassing single-author synthesis of invertebrate structure and development of the 20th century.  Had a lasting influence on teaching  Widely used laboratory manuals for elementary zoology & comparative vertebrate anatomy.

10  Physiological approach to understanding the development of organisms  The Invertebrates: summarized some of the most important questions regarding comparative zoology  Synthesized a HUGE amount of information for zoologists: some of her works are still vital to research today  Barely mentioned in most of historiography of modern evolutionary development

11  Her award from 1969  Scholarship info › Go get that money!

12 (McConnell 1967, p. viii)

13  Hast, Adele. "Libbie Henrietta Hyman." Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia. 1 March Jewish Women's Archive. April 18, 2011.http://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/hyman-libbie-henrietta  Hyman, L. H. (1940). A laboratory manual for comparative vertebrate anatomy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Original work published 1922)  Hyman, L. H., & Hutchinson, G. E. (1999, February 9). Libbie Henrietta Hyman. Retrieved April 18, 2011, from Annelida.net website:  Jenner, R. A. (2004, September 15). Libbie Henrietta Hyman (1888–1969): From developmental mechanics to the evolution of animal body plans. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution, 302B(5), doi: /jez.b  McConnell, J. V. (1967). A manual of psychological experimentation on planarians. Ann Arbor: Journal of Biological Psychology.  Pagerankstudio.com. (2010, September 30). ( ) American Zoologist. In Libbie Hyman’s Biography, life and Career Facts, Invented. Retrieved April 18, 2011, from Pagerankstudio.com website: libbie-hymans- biography-life-and-career-facts-invented/  Scholarships.com. (2011). Libbie H. Hyman Memorial Scholarship. Retrieved April 18, 2011, from Scholarships.com website: scholarships-by-major/biology-scholarships/libbie-h-hyman-memorial-scholarship/  Schultz, D. P., & Schultz, S. E. (2004). A History of Modern Psychology (8th ed.). Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth.


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