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The Lasiocampoidea (includes tent caterpillars) forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma spp)

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Presentation on theme: "The Lasiocampoidea (includes tent caterpillars) forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma spp)"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Lasiocampoidea (includes tent caterpillars) forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma spp)

2 The Bombycoidea (stout-bodied moths with broad wings) major families include the following - giant lappet moths (Eupterotid) - silkworms (Bombycidae) - atlas, emperor and royal moths (Saturniidae) domestic silkmoth (Bombyx mori) rosy maple moth (Dryocampa rubicunda) regal moth (Citheronia regalis)

3 hawk moths (sphigids) are large moths with a long proboscis that is curled under the head when not in use some resemble bees and hummingbirds as they hover at flowers (feeding on nectar) include the Death ’ s-head hawk moth The Bombycoidea (also contains the Sphingidae, which has just over 1,000 species) death ’ s head hawk moth (Acherontia atropos) tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) w/ parasitoids

4 major families include the following... - tussock moths (Lymantriids) - tiger moths (Arctiidae) - cutworms and armyworms (Noctuidae) The Noctuoidea (largest lepidopteran superfamily with > 40,000 species) gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) Woolly bear caterpillar and moth

5 caterpillars are called cutworms, armyworms, and loopers - they are among the most devastating agricultural pests The Noctuidae (one of the largest lepidopteran families with > 22,000 species) cut worms (Agrotis spp.)European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)

6 Class meeting: Nov. 21st Objectives: 1.Distinguish Hymenoptera from other orders. 2.Model the effects of parasitoids on populations of pests and plant yield

7 Sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants (EE, pp. 259-275)

8 Phylogeny of Hexapoda from p. 52 Hymenoptera

9 Common name: Sawflies, wasps, bees and ants (198,000 known world species (19.8%)) Derivation: Gk. hymen - membrane; pteron - a wing Size: Body length 0.25-70 mm Metamorphosis: Complete (egg, larva, pupa, adult) Distribution: Worldwide, except Antarctica Number of families: 91

10 Key Features abundant and ubiquitous body usually with constricted waist some species live in social colonies ovipositor may be modified as a sting second largest order


12 the Symphyta are basal, with the Apocrita (honey bees, wasps and ants) being the more derived group Hymenoptera relationships (divided into two suborders - Symphyta and Apocrita)

13 do not have a constricted waist females have a saw-like ovipositor The Symphyta (the primitive group - they are herbivorous)

14 parasitic apocritans have a slender and, sometimes, very elongate ovipositor for penetrating and laying egges in other insects aculeate apocritans (e.g. honey bees and social wasps) have a modifed ovipositor in the form of a sting with an assoicated poison gland The Apocrita (the presence of a waist allows for maneuverability for egg laying and defense) (Syngaster lepidus)

15 the first segment of the abdomen, called the propodeum, is fused to the thorax the second and, sometimes, the third abdominal segments are very narrow and form the petiole, which gives the distinctive wasp-waisted appearance the swollen remainder of the abdomen behind the petiole is called the gaster or metasoma The Apocrita (what are the characteristics of apocritans?) propodeum petiole gaster

16 Two types of larvae (caterpillar-like (Symphyta) or grub-like (Apocrita)) sawfly larvae have a well-defined head capsule, three pairs of thoracic legs, and abdominal prolegs apocritan larvae (e.g. honey bees and social wasps) tend to be simple and maggot- or grub-like with no legs and a reduced head capsule

17 parasitism and carnivory may have arisen via inquiline species that may originally have been herbivores inside plant galls or other plant tissues - they progressed to eating other small herbivores Herbivory is primitive (sawfly larvae are herbivorous on a wide range of plants)

18 large and stout and often strikingly colored - black or metallic blue, or with yellow hornet-like markings the end of the abdomen has a distinctive terminal spine - it is short in males and spear-like in females The Siricoidea (about 100 species of horntails or wood wasps - attack trees) Oregon horntail (Urocerus gigas)pigeon horntail (Tremex columba)

19 larvae feeding on tree leaves, including pines, and are gregarious and warningly colored (aposematic) when larvae are attacked, they jerk their bodies upright and exude distasteful resins The Tenthredinoidea (the biggest sawfly superfamily - 4,000 species (85% of all sawflies)) Tenthredo basilaris dusky birch sawfly (Croesus latitarusus) Ericampa ovatula

20 Parasitoid lifestyle (most species of parasitoids are hymenopterans) can feed inside (endoparasitoid) or outside (ectoparasitoid) they always kill their hosts upon completion of development many parasitoids are used in biological control programs against pest insects Monodontomerus dentipes feeding on Diprion pini Cotesia spp feeding on Manduca sexta

21 Ichneumonids are typically ecto- and endoparasitoids of larvae and pupae of holometabolous insects, although some are hyperparasitoids braconids tend to be parasitoids of hemimetabolous insects, such as bugs, barklice and termites The Ichneumonoidea (dominated by 2 huge familes - each with around 50,000 species) Ichneumonid attacking a caterpillar braconid attacking an aphid

22 many species use oaks and related trees as their host plants lots of variation in the type of gall that is formed gall formers have complicated life cycles involving sexual and asexual generations (all females in late summer and autumn) The Cynipoidea (outside of the tenthredinids, most Hymenoptera gall forms are cynipids) red cone gall wasp (Andricus kingii)

23 The Chalcidoidea (23,000 species representing 21 families - very small & small parasitic wasps) some are herbivores or seed feeders or gall formers - includes the fig wasps (in the family Agaonidae)

24 the Bethylidae attack caterpillars and beetle larvae, the Dryinidae attack auchenorrhynchan nymphs - the sting from a female causes paralysis and death chrysidids, or jewel wasps, are metallic in color, and roll into a ball to protect against wasp and bee stings The Chrysidoidea (members of the 7 families that make up this group are parasitoids) fuzzy fringed butterfly (Nathalis iole) dryinid larvae emerging from a leaf hopper chrysidid wasp

25 The Vespoidea (more than 22,000 species in 9 families) velvet ant (Dasymutilla vestita) the velvet ants (Mutillidae) - the males have wings but the females are wingless, and lay their eggs in developing bee larvae the spider hunting wasps (Pompilidae) common or paper wasps belong to the Vespidae spider wasppaper wasp (Polistes exclamans) (Texas)

26 the Sphecidae contains the solitary hunting wasps, digger wasps, and sand wasps female sphecids catch prey, paralyze it with their sting, and transport it back to the nest where they will seal it in with an egg prey items include other insects and spiders The Sphecoidea (a single family, the sphecids, with about 8,000 species) blue hunting wasp (Chlorion spp.) great golden digger wasp (Sphex ichneumoneus)

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