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INFORMATIONAL Text and the Common Core State Standards

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1 INFORMATIONAL Text and the Common Core State Standards
Improving Vocabulary & Comprehension

2 Common Core State Standards
Calls for an interdisciplinary approach with a balance of literature and informational texts in: history social studies science Preparation for reading complex informational texts should begin at the very earliest elementary school grades. Domain-specific nonfiction can be infused within the English language arts block. Florida Department of Education - Just Read, Florida!

3 Teacher Use of Informational Texts
Mixed Genre 13% Narrative texts have largely dominated read-alouds in the primary classroom. (Duke, 2000) Expository 4% In the past, when teachers read aloud & interpreted difficult nonfiction, young readers learned information but failed to read expository text. (Palmer & Stewart, 2003) Narrative 82% So how much information text is used in a typical classroom read-aloud? Numerous studies reveal that narrative texts dominate the read-aloud in the primary classroom. And, even when teachers do use informational texts, students will learn information from it but do not read it for themselves. The RAND research findings suggest that this is because students do not receive teacher-directed instruction in how to: navigate informational text, and extract information from informational text. Teachers need to use informational text for more reasons than just consuming content information. They also need to model the thinking processes in accessing and extracting the content information. For informational texts, this adds an important series of steps to the read-aloud process. Teachers need to directly instruct how to navigate & extract information in order to become fluent & strategic readers of this genre. (RAND, 2002) Pentimonti et al, 2010

4 The Water Hole Mixed genre text
The way a teacher uses it in read-aloud will determine benefits from its use: Focus on literary elements: entertainment Focus on informational elements: content knowledge A read-aloud can increase learning benefits by: emphasizing the book’s informational elements pairing it with another informational text (i.e., Animal Dictionary) rereading, each time with a more precise focus: Specific name of animal (i.e., panda bear, toucan, etc.) Specific type of animal (i.e., mammal, bird, etc.) Animal comparisons (i.e., animals with horns, pouches, etc.) Animal habitats (i.e., mountains, jungle, etc.) Have participants read handout, Using Informational Texts in Reading Instruction. Show and model use of The Water Hole in a classroom read-aloud. Point out that it is a mixed genre text. This is an example of a text that could be used in the fall of the year for a unit on animals and animal habitats.

5 ACTIVITY: Using Informational Texts
How do I use informational text in my classroom? With a partner, discuss the following: What percentage of read-alouds in my classroom are: How do I currently use informational texts? Where could I locate more informational texts? READ-ALOUD TEXTS IN MY CLASSROOM Literary/Narrative Text Informational/Expository Text The Water Hole by Graeme Base The Paper Crane by Molly Bang Monarch Butterfly by Gail Gibbons ACTIVITY: Using Informational Text Participants 5

6 Informational Text: The Benefits Align with Elements of Text Complexity
Expands student development of: more sophisticated oral language (Reese & Harris, 1997; Smolkin et al, 2008) content area knowledge in science and social studies (Stone & Twardosz, 2001; Hirsch, 2003) expository text structures (Duke & Kays, 1998; Donovan & Smolkin, 2001) reading interest in various topics (Duke 2000; Casteel & Isom, 1994) Elements of Text Complexity Text Structure Levels of Meaning Knowledge Demands Language

7 Selecting Informational Texts
Criteria for Selecting Informational Texts for Primary Classrooms Cover Does the cover showcase and accurately represent content information inside the book? Content/Topic Does this text & its potential use align with and meet one or more of the Common Core State Standard(s)? Which standard(s) does it target? Does the text relate to a topic that is a focus in one or more of the subject areas? (i.e., reading, science, social studies, etc.) Which content, topic, and subject area? Does this text share a theme with another informational text for use as paired/series text? Does the writer share: - accurate, reliable, and current facts? - intriguing information? - references or research sources? Illustrations Do the illustrations: include accurate and sufficient labels or captions? explain and/or enhance the content? Organization Are the sections, headings, sub-headings, and illustrations: well-organized and clearly distinct from one another? well-designed with table of contents, index, or glossary? Font size/type Are the letters/font large and simple enough for students to clearly see?

8 ACTIVITY: Instruction in the Fall
Text: From Seed to Pumpkin Author: Wendy Pfeffer With a partner, identify specific Common Core Standard(s) that correspond with instructional tasks for reading, language, and writing. On the timeline, place specific instructional routines in sequence (See three of the instructional routines on the following page – p 4.) Discuss how instruction for this lesson facilitates the performance task for this text. From Seed to Pumpkin is a Kindergarten exemplar of complex informational text located in Appendix B of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Materials for Activity: Handout pages 2, 3, & 4 Use the handout, Informational Text in the Kindergarten Classroom, for this activity. The series of slides for the text, From Seed to Pumpkin, focuses on lesson alignment with the Common Core State Standards using various instructional routines. It also focuses on how lesson alignment to the Common Core State Standards and use of informational texts need to expand an change over the course of the year.

9 From Seed to Pumpkin PICTURE SORT ROUTINE Parts of a Pumpkin
Basic Needs of a Pumpkin One of the Kindergarten Common Core State Standards for Language includes sorting common objects into categories. The Picture Sort Routine provides this opportunity. Before, during, and after the process of sorting, the teacher needs to encourage students to name and label the objects and describe why certain objects go together. Florida Department of Education - Just Read, Florida!

10 (Using approximately 10 words or less)
From Seed to Pumpkin MAIN IDEA ROUTINE (Using approximately 10 words or less) Pumpkins need sunlight, water, and air to grow from a seed. One of the Kindergarten Common Core State Standards for Reading includes identifying the main topic. The Main Idea Routines provides such an opportunity. Florida Department of Education - Just Read, Florida!

11 From Seed to Pumpkin Routine for Retelling and Writing
The farmer plants the seeds. Seeds A stem shoots up from the ground and becomes a seedling. Seedling Leaves grow bigger by turning sunlight into food energy and mixing air with water. Leaves The plant grows bigger every day by soaking up water from the soil. Plant One of the Kindergarten Common Core State Standards for Reading Informational Texts includes retelling key details in a text. The Retelling Routine provides students with such an opportunity. Teachers and students can use a completed graphic organizer as a tool for retelling and writing the text information as follow-up to reading, rereading, and discussing the text. Florida Department of Education - Just Read, Florida!

12 ACTIVITY: Instruction in the Spring
Text: How a Seed Grows Author: Helene Jordan BACKGROUND INFORMATION From the Let’s-Read-And-Find-Out Science Series (same series as From Seed to Pumpkin) About the processes of planting and growing seeds so the teacher: briefly demonstrates during read aloud for students to observe differences in seed growth across days. relates to the book in different ways over several lessons. can use both books in a lesson as paired texts (How a Seed Grows and From Seed to Pumpkin) Use the handout, Informational Text in the Kindergarten Classroom, for this activity. This lesson occurs in the winter after reading, rereading, discussing, and writing about the book, How a Seed Grows. It uses this text as well as a paired text read during the fall of the year, From Seed to Pumpkin, and entails the following: Sorting and naming different types of seeds mentioned in both books. Using information from both books to contrast the various seeds in the following ways: Size Shape Color Rate of growth (i.e., oak seed is longer than pumpkin seed, etc.) Drawing and writing an informational text about: what all seeds need in order to grow. how growing a pumpkin is different from that of an oak tree.

13 Seeds INSTRUCTION: Main Idea & Summarizing Sprouts Roots Planting
Lesson 4: Bean seeds grow sprouts a little bit everyday. Lesson 1: Different seeds grow in different ways. Lesson 2: Planting requires seeds, a container, soil, water, and sunlight. Lesson 3: Bean seeds grow roots a little bit everyday. Roots Seeds This slide corresponds with pages 5-8 of the handout, Using Informational Text in the Kindergarten Classroom. Kindergarten teachers can use pictures to distinguish the difference between a topic and the main idea. With systematic use of an explicit routine over time, students will learn that: the topic is part of the main idea. main ideas are used to summarize an entire text. Lesson 5: Summary Statement The book From Seed to Pumpkin describes how pumpkins seeds grow and what they need in order to grow into pumpkin plants. Planting Lesson 5: Summary Statement The book How a Seed Grows is about how different seeds grow in different ways, how to plant bean seeds, and how watch their roots and sprouts grow a little bit every day.

14 ACTIVITY: Instruction in the Spring
Text: How a Seed Grows Author: Helene Jordan With a partner, identify specific Common Core Standard(s) that correspond with instructional tasks for reading, language, and writing. Determine which routines in lessons 1-5 facilitate student understanding in: Text structure Basic comprehension Vocabulary development Content-area concepts Complex thinking Materials for Activity: Handout pages 5 & 6 Use the handout, Informational Text in the Kindergarten Classroom, for this activity. This lesson occurs in the spring after reading, rereading, discussing, and writing about the book, How a Seed Grows. It uses this text as well as a paired text read during the fall of the year, From Seed to Pumpkin, and entails the following: Sorting and naming different types of seeds mentioned in both books. Using information from both books to contrast the various seeds in the following ways: Size Shape Color Rate of growth (i.e., oak seed is longer than pumpkin seed, etc.) Drawing and writing an informational text about: what all seeds need in order to grow. how growing a pumpkin is different from that of an oak tree.

15 Florida Department of Education - Just Read, Florida!
The series of slides focusing on the text, Monarch Butterfly, focuses on teacher-directed instruction that provides opportunity for Kindergarten students to observe/witness close reading modeled by the teacher during the read-aloud. Model a teacher read-aloud using this text. The text can be: introduced in whole group, reading through the text once for students to gain a general understanding. reread in whole group to focus in on vocabulary reread (perhaps even a second time) in small group using such techniques as text-marking to focus on specific thinking processes. Florida Department of Education - Just Read, Florida!

16 Teacher-Directed Instruction
EXAMPLE OF TEACHER-DIRECTED INSTRUCTION USING INFORMATIONAL TEXT Instructional Focus & Process Text Segment from Monarch Butterfly Teacher Comments VOCABULARY OF INFORMATIONAL TEXT: The teacher focuses on meanings of general academic & discipline-specific vocabulary. The teacher rereads text aloud & briefly stops at strategic places in text using: choral response pictures to illustrate pantomime (perhaps with objects) to animate action graphic organizers to show relationships repetitive use of new word In a few days the egg hatches. Out crawls a small caterpillar, also called a larva. After reading the text segment, the teacher points to text and says: This word larva is one we haven’t heard before. Let’s say the word larva together: “larva.” Larva is one of the growing stages of the caterpillar. (Teacher holds up large picture of caterpillar) First, the caterpillar hatches from the egg (teacher uses plastic egg to animate hatching action), then it becomes larva. Everyone, what happens to the egg? “It hatches.” What does it hatch into? “Larva.” (Teacher records words on graphic organizer next to picture of caterpillar, then points to words for students to say them with her again) This is an example of how content terminology from informational text can be introduced during a read-aloud. While such vocabulary can be a challenge, students can rise to the challenge when teachers are prepared with multiple supports such as using: choral response at strategic times during the introduction pictures to illustrate the introduced concepts pantomime to animate the introduced actions graphic organizers to show the introduced relationships new words over and over in a repetitive fashion The teacher may decide to reread an informational text for the single purpose and focus of introducing challenging terminology. Florida Department of Education - Just Read, Florida!

17 EXAMPLE OF TEACHER-DIRECTED INSTRUCTION USING INFORMATIONAL TEXT
Instructional Focus & Process Text Segment from Monarch Butterfly Teacher Comments USING INFORMATIONAL TEXT: The teacher models various aspects of close reading during rereading. The teacher models thinking skills and processes: Text-marking with variety of manipulatives (i.e., post-it notes, sticky flags) Pre-recorded questions for display In a few days the egg hatches. Out crawls a small caterpillar, also called a larva First, the caterpillar eats the eggshell and then chews away at the milkweed leaf. The egg of a monarch is almost always laid on a milkweed plant. The plant will be its food. Between text segments, the teacher models questioning, comprehension monitoring, & metacognitive awareness using text-marking technique by placing large yellow transparent sticky flags over the target words: Now that I know that larva is a growth stage of the caterpillar, I want to keep reading to find out the answer this question: What does a caterpillar do in the larva stage? The teacher models how to extract and use text information. The skin falls off. A new, strange form appears! It is called the chrysalis or pupa. The chrysalis is like a blanket that is wrapped around the body growing inside. After reading the text segment, the teacher says: Pupa is the caterpillar’s next stage of growth. I know that because of these words on this page (Teacher points to & rereads segment): “A new, strange form appears.” (Teacher traces shape of pupa on the page’s picture) This has 2 names, and it says what the names are right here (points to text): “chrysalis or pupa.” And, these words on the next line tell me what a pupa looks like (points to text): “a blanket that is wrapped around the body growing inside.” See, this picture shows the caterpillar’s skin wrapping around it like a blanket. (Teacher records words on graphic organizer next to picture of caterpillar forming a pupa, then points to words for students to say them with her.) While Kindergarten students learn to read more independently as the year progresses, teachers can model the process and thinking behind close reading. Consistent demonstration of these practices will prepare students to engage in such comprehension practices when they begin to independently engage in the decoding process. It is important for students to understand as quickly as possible that decoding in order to think about meaning is a coordinated process. To make all of this visible, teachers will need to use manipulatives with such techniques as text-marking.

18 Organizing & Using Extracted Text Information
6. Butterfly dries wings 1. Butterfly lays egg 2. Egg hatches and becomes caterpillar (larva) 3. Caterpillar molting 4. Caterpillar forms a pupa 5. Butterfly pulls out of pupa Life Cycles of the Monarch Butterfly The teacher uses a graphic organizer with pictures to illustrate the content area terminology and processes. Once the read-aloud and graphic organizer are completed, the organizer can be reused for rereading the Monarch Butterfly, this time focusing on the structure of the text. This graphic organizes information in sequence, the structure of this particular text. (See information on the next slide.) As students continue to be exposed to informational texts with the same text structures, they can begin to recognize that: many authors write information in order (a sequence). they can write about information in sequence, as well. Florida Department of Education - Just Read, Florida!

19 EXAMPLE OF TEACHER-DIRECTED INSTRUCTION USING INFORMATIONAL TEXT
Instructional Focus & Process Text Segment from Monarch Butterfly Teacher Comments NAVIGATING INFORMATIONAL TEXT: The teacher points out to students the purpose & use of organizational elements of text. The teacher models how to navigate the following organizational elements of informational text: text features (headings, diagrams) text structure or organization (sequence, compare/contrast, etc.) text resources in the book ( table of contents, glossary, etc.) When the butterfly lays the egg In a few days the egg hatches… First, the caterpillar eats the eggshell… It breaks out of its old skin (molting)… For two weeks the caterpillar eats. It molts about five times. Finally, it is a full grown monarch caterpillar…It attaches itself to the stem and drops down head first… A new, strange form appears! It is called chrysalis … Before reviewing text segments, the teacher says: Let’s look at this large chart that we made during our last rereading. (Teacher refers to each step on the chart, one by one, turning to the corresponding page in text to point out sequence of stages in life cycle). All of this shows the stages from the egg. This helps us understand what this book is all about. All of the growing stages in the life of a monarch butterfly. The teacher correlates specific pictures and segments of the book to each stage depicted on the graphic organizer, Life Cycle of the Monarch Butterfly. This information illustrates the importance of rereading an informational text more than once, each time with a different important focus and instructional process. Each time an informational text is reread, students gain familiarity with its language, content, concepts, and navigation. In this instance, students will begin to see that the text has an important pattern: sequence. Pattern recognition supports comprehension of text information for such activities as identifying main idea, summarizing, and question generation.

20 Organizing & Using Extracted Text Information
What creatures eat butterflies? 6. Butterfly dries wings 1. Butterfly lays egg 2. Egg hatches and becomes caterpillar (larva) 3. Caterpillar molting 4. Caterpillar forms a pupa 5. Butterfly pulls out of pupa What happens inside the pupa to make it shrink, harden, and turn into a butterfly? How many eggs do monarch butterflies lay? Life Cycles of the Monarch Butterfly Completed graphic organizers are great tools for use in student question generation. Over time, teachers can collect and organize the questions that students have orally generated. These are questions that are yet unanswered by texts used in classroom read-alouds. These questions become learning objectives for future research and writing projects. This graphic organizer can also help teachers keep track of which questions have been posted and which questions are yet unanswered. Answered questions can be posted on a Question Concept Board for students to refer to during writing and class discussions. How many days does it take for an egg to hatch into a caterpillar? Why do caterpillars molt?

21 Florida Department of Education - Just Read, Florida!
Refer participants to the chart, Example of Teacher-Directed Instruction Using Informational Text, to read the corresponding instructional focus, process, and teacher comments. Add the enlarged diagram to the interactive vocabulary word wall to illustrate its value over time to support vocabulary, comprehension, discussion, and writing. Florida Department of Education - Just Read, Florida!

22 Classroom Diagrams scales antenna proboscis thorax abdomen
Diagrams can be used in class: interactive word wall discussions picture glossaries picture summaries How can feelers help a butterfly touch and smell? scales antenna How wide are the wings? proboscis Labeling diagrams provides opportunity for students to expand and refine their vocabulary development and conceptual understandings. In this example, students can begin labeling parts of a butterfly using more familiar terminology and, throughout the unit, add specific terminology to the diagram. Diagrams can be used for extended thinking and writing tasks such as constructing picture glossaries and summaries. What kind of flower juice does the monarch eat with its proboscis? thorax Diagrams can become a Question Generation Board abdomen

23 Student Diagrams Diagrams can become part of student work:
picture glossaries summaries writing question generation research projects Provided support over time, diagrams can become part of student work samples on a consistent basis. Students can include diagrams in their journals and portfolios. Their work can be comprised of several components: Picture glossary Summaries Writing (i.e., sentence captions, paragraph, essay, etc.) Collection of their generated questions research project information

24 Paired Text Lesson Text 1: Face to Face with Caterpillars by Darlyne Murawski Text 2: Monarch Butterfly by Gail Gibbons Students compare & contrast information across texts: Research different types of caterpillars Learn & use more specific terminology (i.e., cocoon, etc.) since the Winter of the year Draw and write information about the activities of various caterpillars (i.e., contrast how larva is different for various insects). Use the handout, Informational Text in the Kindergarten Classroom, for this activity. This lesson occurs in the Spring after reading, rereading, discussing, and writing about the book, Face to Face with Caterpillars. It uses this text as well as a paired text read during the winter of the year.

25 Ruth.Gumm@fldoe.org Katie.Moeller@fldoe.org CALL: 850-245-9529
Unanswered Questions? CALL: Florida Department of Education - Just Read, Florida Office


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