Presentation on theme: "INFORMATIONAL TEXT AND THE COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS Improving Vocabulary & Comprehension."— Presentation transcript:
INFORMATIONAL TEXT AND THE COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS Improving Vocabulary & Comprehension
Common Core State Standards Florida Department of Education - Just Read, Florida! 2 Calls for an interdisciplinary approach with a balance of literature and informational texts in: history social studies science Preparation for reading complex informational texts should begin at the very earliest elementary school grades. Domain-specific nonfiction can be infused within the English language arts block.
Teacher Use of Informational Texts 3 Narrative texts have largely dominated read-alouds in the primary classroom. (Duke, 2000) Narrative 82% Expository 4% Mixed Genre 13% Pentimonti et al, 2010 In the past, when teachers read aloud & interpreted difficult nonfiction, young readers learned information but failed to read expository text. (Palmer & Stewart, 2003) Teachers need to directly instruct how to navigate & extract information in order to become fluent & strategic readers of this genre. (RAND, 2002)
The Water Hole 4 Mixed genre text The way a teacher uses it in read-aloud will determine benefits from its use: Focus on literary elements: entertainment Focus on informational elements: content knowledge A read-aloud can increase learning benefits by: emphasizing the book’s informational elements pairing it with another informational text (i.e., Animal Dictionary) rereading, each time with a more precise focus: 1. Specific name of animal (i.e., panda bear, toucan, etc.) 2. Specific type of animal (i.e., mammal, bird, etc.) 3. Animal comparisons (i.e., animals with horns, pouches, etc.) 4. Animal habitats (i.e., mountains, jungle, etc.)
ACTIVITY: Using Informational Texts 5 How do I use informational text in my classroom? With a partner, discuss the following: What percentage of read-alouds in my classroom are: How do I currently use informational texts? Where could I locate more informational texts? READ-ALOUD TEXTS IN MY CLASSROOM Literary/Narrative TextInformational/Expository Text The Water Hole by Graeme Base The Paper Crane by Molly BangMonarch Butterfly by Gail Gibbons
Informational Text: The Benefits Align with Elements of Text Complexity 6 Expands student development of: more sophisticated oral language (Reese & Harris, 1997; Smolkin et al, 2008) content area knowledge in science and social studies (Stone & Twardosz, 2001; Hirsch, 2003) expository text structures (Duke & Kays, 1998; Donovan & Smolkin, 2001) reading interest in various topics (Duke 2000; Casteel & Isom, 1994) Levels of Meaning Language Text Structure Knowledge Demands Elements of Text Complexity
Selecting Informational Texts 7 Criteria for Selecting Informational Texts for Primary Classrooms Cover Does the cover showcase and accurately represent content information inside the book? Content/Topic Does this text & its potential use align with and meet one or more of the Common Core State Standard(s)? Which standard(s) does it target? Does the text relate to a topic that is a focus in one or more of the subject areas? (i.e., reading, science, social studies, etc.) Which content, topic, and subject area? Does this text share a theme with another informational text for use as paired/series text? Does the writer share: - accurate, reliable, and current facts? - intriguing information? - references or research sources? Illustrations Do the illustrations: include accurate and sufficient labels or captions? explain and/or enhance the content? Organization Are the sections, headings, sub-headings, and illustrations: well-organized and clearly distinct from one another? well-designed with table of contents, index, or glossary? Font size/type Are the letters/font large and simple enough for students to clearly see?
ACTIVITY: Instruction in the Fall 8 Text: From Seed to Pumpkin Author: Wendy Pfeffer With a partner, identify specific Common Core Standard(s) that correspond with instructional tasks for reading, language, and writing. On the timeline, place specific instructional routines in sequence. (See three of the instructional routines on the following page – p 4.) Discuss how instruction for this lesson facilitates the performance task for this text. From Seed to Pumpkin is a Kindergarten exemplar of complex informational text located in Appendix B of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Materials for Activity: Handout pages 2, 3, & 4
From Seed to Pumpkin Florida Department of Education - Just Read, Florida! 9 PICTURE SORT ROUTINE Basic Needs of a PumpkinParts of a Pumpkin
From Seed to Pumpkin Florida Department of Education - Just Read, Florida! 10 MAIN IDEA ROUTINE (Using approximately 10 words or less) Pumpkins need sunlight, water, and air to grow from a seed.
From Seed to Pumpkin Florida Department of Education - Just Read, Florida! 11 The farmer plants the seeds. Seeds A stem shoots up from the ground and becomes a seedling. Seedling Leaves grow bigger by turning sunlight into food energy and mixing air with water. Leaves The plant grows bigger every day by soaking up water from the soil. Plant Routine for Retelling and Writing
ACTIVITY: Instruction in the Spring 12 Text: How a Seed Grows Author: Helene Jordan BACKGROUND INFORMATION From the Let’s-Read-And-Find-Out Science Series (same series as From Seed to Pumpkin) About the processes of planting and growing seeds so the teacher: briefly demonstrates during read aloud for students to observe differences in seed growth across days. relates to the book in different ways over several lessons. can use both books in a lesson as paired texts (How a Seed Grows and From Seed to Pumpkin)
13 Lesson 4: Bean seeds grow sprouts a little bit everyday. Lesson 1: Different seeds grow in different ways. Lesson 2: Planting requires seeds, a container, soil, water, and sunlight. Lesson 3: Bean seeds grow roots a little bit everyday. Lesson 5: Summary Statement The book How a Seed Grows is about how different seeds grow in different ways, how to plant bean seeds, and how watch their roots and sprouts grow a little bit every day. Lesson 5: Summary Statement The book From Seed to Pumpkin describes how pumpkins seeds grow and what they need in order to grow into pumpkin plants. INSTRUCTION: Main Idea & Summarizing Seeds Planting Roots Sprouts
ACTIVITY: Instruction in the Spring 14 Text: How a Seed Grows Author: Helene Jordan With a partner, identify specific Common Core Standard(s) that correspond with instructional tasks for reading, language, and writing. Determine which routines in lessons 1-5 facilitate student understanding in: Text structure Basic comprehension Vocabulary development Content-area concepts Complex thinking Materials for Activity: Handout pages 5 & 6
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Teacher-Directed Instruction Florida Department of Education - Just Read, Florida! 16 EXAMPLE OF TEACHER-DIRECTED INSTRUCTION USING INFORMATIONAL TEXT Instructional Focus & Process Text Segment from Monarch Butterfly Teacher Comments VOCABULARY OF INFORMATIONAL TEXT: The teacher focuses on meanings of general academic & discipline-specific vocabulary. The teacher rereads text aloud & briefly stops at strategic places in text using: choral response pictures to illustrate pantomime (perhaps with objects) to animate action graphic organizers to show relationships repetitive use of new word In a few days the egg hatches. Out crawls a small caterpillar, also called a larva. After reading the text segment, the teacher points to text and says: This word larva is one we haven’t heard before. Let’s say the word larva together: “larva.” Larva is one of the growing stages of the caterpillar. (Teacher holds up large picture of caterpillar) First, the caterpillar hatches from the egg (teacher uses plastic egg to animate hatching action), then it becomes larva. Everyone, what happens to the egg? “It hatches.” What does it hatch into? “Larva.” (Teacher records words on graphic organizer next to picture of caterpillar, then points to words for students to say them with her again)
17 EXAMPLE OF TEACHER-DIRECTED INSTRUCTION USING INFORMATIONAL TEXT Instructional Focus & Process Text Segment from Monarch Butterfly Teacher Comments USING INFORMATIONAL TEXT: The teacher models various aspects of close reading during rereading. The teacher models thinking skills and processes: Text-marking with variety of manipulatives (i.e., post-it notes, sticky flags) Pre-recorded questions for display In a few days the egg hatches. Out crawls a small caterpillar, also called a larva.... First, the caterpillar eats the eggshell and then chews away at the milkweed leaf. The egg of a monarch is almost always laid on a milkweed plant. The plant will be its food. Between text segments, the teacher models questioning, comprehension monitoring, & metacognitive awareness using text-marking technique by placing large yellow transparent sticky flags over the target words: Now that I know that larva is a growth stage of the caterpillar, I want to keep reading to find out the answer this question: - What does a caterpillar do in the larva stage? The teacher models how to extract and use text information.... The skin falls off. A new, strange form appears! It is called the chrysalis or pupa. The chrysalis is like a blanket that is wrapped around the body growing inside. After reading the text segment, the teacher says : Pupa is the caterpillar’s next stage of growth. I know that because of these words on this page (Teacher points to & rereads segment): “A new, strange form appears.” (Teacher traces shape of pupa on the page’s picture) This has 2 names, and it says what the names are right here (points to text): “chrysalis or pupa.” And, these words on the next line tell me what a pupa looks like (points to text): “a blanket that is wrapped around the body growing inside.” See, this picture shows the caterpillar’s skin wrapping around it like a blanket. (Teacher records words on graphic organizer next to picture of caterpillar forming a pupa, then points to words for students to say them with her.)
Organizing & Using Extracted Text Information Florida Department of Education - Just Read, Florida! 18 Life Cycles of the Monarch Butterfly
19 EXAMPLE OF TEACHER-DIRECTED INSTRUCTION USING INFORMATIONAL TEXT Instructional Focus & Process Text Segment from Monarch Butterfly Teacher Comments NAVIGATING INFORMATIONAL TEXT: The teacher points out to students the purpose & use of organizational elements of text. The teacher models how to navigate the following organizational elements of informational text: 1.text features (headings, diagrams) 2.text structure or organization (sequence, compare/contrast, etc.) 3.text resources in the book ( table of contents, glossary, etc.) 2.When the butterfly lays the egg... In a few days the egg hatches… First, the caterpillar eats the eggshell… It breaks out of its old skin (molting)… For two weeks the caterpillar eats. It molts about five times. Finally, it is a full grown monarch caterpillar…It attaches itself to the stem and drops down head first… A new, strange form appears! It is called chrysalis … 2. Before reviewing text segments, the teacher says: Let’s look at this large chart that we made during our last rereading. (Teacher refers to each step on the chart, one by one, turning to the corresponding page in text to point out sequence of stages in life cycle). All of this shows the stages from the egg. This helps us understand what this book is all about. All of the growing stages in the life of a monarch butterfly.
Organizing & Using Extracted Text Information 20 Life Cycles of the Monarch Butterfly How many eggs do monarch butterflies lay? How many days does it take for an egg to hatch into a caterpillar? Why do caterpillars molt? What happens inside the pupa to make it shrink, harden, and turn into a butterfly? What creatures eat butterflies?
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Classroom Diagrams 22 thorax abdomen antenna proboscis scales Diagrams can be used in class: interactive word wall discussions picture glossaries picture summaries Diagrams can become a Question Generation Board How wide are the wings? How can feelers help a butterfly touch and smell? What kind of flower juice does the monarch eat with its proboscis?
Student Diagrams 23 Diagrams can become part of student work: picture glossaries summaries writing question generation research projects
Paired Text Lesson 24 Text 1: Face to Face with Caterpillars by Darlyne Murawski Text 2: Monarch Butterfly by Gail Gibbons Students compare & contrast information across texts: Research different types of caterpillars Learn & use more specific terminology (i.e., cocoon, etc.) since the Winter of the year Draw and write information about the activities of various caterpillars (i.e., contrast how larva is different for various insects).
Unanswered Questions? CALL: Florida Department of Education - Just Read, Florida Office