2 Brief Contents Chapter 7 Technical Communication Chapter 8 Developing and Using Graphic and Visual AidsChapter 9 Communicating with CustomersChapter 10 Nonverbal CommunicationChapter 11 Presentations and MeetingsChapter 12 Getting Your Job
3 Chapter 7 Technical Communication 7.1 writing to instruct7.2 writing to describe7.3 writing to persuade
4 7.1 writing to instruct Objectives: 1. list the components of effective instructions2. describe how to write effective steps for instructions3. describe how a manual is similar to and different from instructions4. describe how to make information in a manual easy to locate
5 The purpose of instructions and manuals Instructions tell readers how to do something.Manuals are sets of instructions combined with explanations, descriptions, definitions, and other related information.Both instructions and manuals should provide all the guidance readers need in order to carry out the tasks.
6 Components of Effective Instructions Four components:1. A clear and limiting title2.An introduction and a list of needed tools or materials3.Numbered steps in sequential order4.A conclusion
7 Clear and limiting Title The title should explain what the reader will do with the topic, limiting, specific enough for readers to know what it does and does not coverUnclear and too broad: the ABC ModemClear and limiting: how to install the ABC Modem
8 Introduction and list of needed tools or materials The introduction should explain:1.what the instructions should accomplish2.who should follow the instructions3.when and why to follow the instructionsList of needed tools or materials include:1.special skills or knowledge required2.time frame3. cautions4.definitions
9 Numbered steps in sequential order and conclusion Provide everything readers need , without overwhelming them with details or unneeded informationConclusion describe the expected results in the last sentence or summarized the major steps.
10 Guideline for Writing Effective Steps Number each step and start it with a verb.Put the steps in sequential orderDescribe each step separately so readers will not overlook a stepIndent any explanations under the appropriate stepIf a step should be carried out only under certain conditions, describe the conditions first.If you have many steps or several pocedure, group them under subheadings
11 continuousSingle-space the information within a step,double-space between steps.Include diagrams or other graphics whenever they will clarify the instructionsHighlight warnings and cautions so readers do not overlook themCreate a clear , inviting format by using number, letters , indentation, boldface, and lots of white space.As part of the revision process, ask someone to try following your instructions
12 Writing Effective Manuals Provide how a machine works and how use , maintain , and repair it.Have a clear title and be well organized , clearly written , and appropriate for the intended readers.Be divided into sections or chapters, one for each main procedure or process.May have a glossary , a list of unfamiliar terms, abbreviations, or acronyms.Might include an appendix , a collection of supplemental material at the end of the manual.
13 Writing Effective Manuals Making Information Accessible in Manuals1.Detailed table of contents2.Introduction3.Tabs or dividers4.Graphics and diagrams5.Modifications for different experience levels
14 7.2 Writing to Describe Objectives: 1. explain how a process description differs from a set of instruction2.describe the components of objects and mechanism descriptions.3. explain how to write a description of an object or a mechanism4. list the components of a process description
15 Types of description Writing A description is a verbal and visual picture of something.1.Object description.P.102. Mechanism description. P.103. Process description.P10Form description: one paragraph explanationInformal description: introduction, body , and conclusion.
16 Components of a Formal Object or Mechanism Description 1.a clear and limiting title2. an introduction and overview3. a part-by-part description4. a conclusion
17 Guidelines for Writing Object and Mechanism Description Describe the object or part by it shape, dimensions, size ,color, texture, position, and/ or materialFor most of your descriptions, be objective.Be specific and precise, avoiding vague or general termsCompare the unfamiliar to the familiar
18 Writing a Process Description Components of a process descriptionClear and limiting titleIntroductionStep-by-step descriptionconclusion
19 7.3 Writing to Persuade Objectives: 1.Plan a persuasive letter 2.Organize a persuasive letter3. Organize a sales letter and a collection letter.4. Plan and organize a propsal
20 The purpose of Persuasive Writing A lot of things to be persuaded to be done: to work overtime on a special project, to use a new form, to place orders, to pay the bill, etc.Most persuasive letters occurs in memos, letters and proposals.
21 Planning a persuasive letter Identify the objectiveIdentify the main ideaDetermine the supporting informationAdjust the content to the reader
22 Organizing a persuasive letter Persuasive letter are organized in indirect order—describe the need convincingly before making your requestSteps:Gain the reader’s attentionShow the reader that he or she has a needExplain your solution to that need—your requstPresent the supporting informationEnd by asking for s specific action
23 Writing Different Kinds of Persuasive Messages Sales letters—persuade the potential customers to purchase a product or service.Collection letters—persuade a customer to pay a past-due bill.
24 Four stages of collection letter 1) the reminder stage—assumes has simply forgotten to make a payment, in a direct order.,2) the strong reminder—sent when no response to the first reminder, direct and firm.3) the discussion stage---to obtain the full payment , partial payment as temporary measure, or an explanation of why the customer has not made the appropriate payment, indirect way4) the urgency stage—to obtain payment and advise the customer of the consequence if payment is not made immediately, direct and the tone is firm.
25 Writing ProposalsA proposal is a formal report that describes a problem and recommends a solution.when you write a proposal , you suggest or propose a practical way to meet the reader’s need.Two kinds: solicited proposal—to ask for proposals to meet an identified need; unsolicited proposal—the receiver has not asked for this type of proposal.
26 Writing ProposalsPlanning a proposal—what is most likely to motivate this receiver to accept this proposal?Organizing a proposal –contain ten elements: introduction, background, need, scope of project ,action of project, schedule, cost, qualification, call for action, supporting informationFormatting a proposal: follow the RFP closely in solicited proposal; and use subheadings to make the document inviting to read and easy to skim in unsolicited proposal.