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English & Communications for College

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Presentation on theme: "English & Communications for College"— Presentation transcript:

1 English & Communications for College
(Part II)

2 Brief Contents Chapter 7 Technical Communication
Chapter 8 Developing and Using Graphic and Visual Aids Chapter 9 Communicating with Customers Chapter 10 Nonverbal Communication Chapter 11 Presentations and Meetings Chapter 12 Getting Your Job

3 Chapter 7 Technical Communication
7.1 writing to instruct 7.2 writing to describe 7.3 writing to persuade

4 7.1 writing to instruct Objectives:
1. list the components of effective instructions 2. describe how to write effective steps for instructions 3. describe how a manual is similar to and different from instructions 4. describe how to make information in a manual easy to locate

5 The purpose of instructions and manuals
Instructions tell readers how to do something. Manuals are sets of instructions combined with explanations, descriptions, definitions, and other related information. Both instructions and manuals should provide all the guidance readers need in order to carry out the tasks.

6 Components of Effective Instructions
Four components: 1. A clear and limiting title 2.An introduction and a list of needed tools or materials 3.Numbered steps in sequential order 4.A conclusion

7 Clear and limiting Title
The title should explain what the reader will do with the topic, limiting, specific enough for readers to know what it does and does not cover Unclear and too broad: the ABC Modem Clear and limiting: how to install the ABC Modem

8 Introduction and list of needed tools or materials
The introduction should explain: 1.what the instructions should accomplish 2.who should follow the instructions 3.when and why to follow the instructions List of needed tools or materials include: 1.special skills or knowledge required 2.time frame 3. cautions 4.definitions

9 Numbered steps in sequential order and conclusion
Provide everything readers need , without overwhelming them with details or unneeded information Conclusion describe the expected results in the last sentence or summarized the major steps.

10 Guideline for Writing Effective Steps
Number each step and start it with a verb. Put the steps in sequential order Describe each step separately so readers will not overlook a step Indent any explanations under the appropriate step If a step should be carried out only under certain conditions, describe the conditions first. If you have many steps or several pocedure, group them under subheadings

11 continuous Single-space the information within a step,double-space between steps. Include diagrams or other graphics whenever they will clarify the instructions Highlight warnings and cautions so readers do not overlook them Create a clear , inviting format by using number, letters , indentation, boldface, and lots of white space. As part of the revision process, ask someone to try following your instructions

12 Writing Effective Manuals
Provide how a machine works and how use , maintain , and repair it. Have a clear title and be well organized , clearly written , and appropriate for the intended readers. Be divided into sections or chapters, one for each main procedure or process. May have a glossary , a list of unfamiliar terms, abbreviations, or acronyms. Might include an appendix , a collection of supplemental material at the end of the manual.

13 Writing Effective Manuals
Making Information Accessible in Manuals 1.Detailed table of contents 2.Introduction 3.Tabs or dividers 4.Graphics and diagrams 5.Modifications for different experience levels

14 7.2 Writing to Describe Objectives:
1. explain how a process description differs from a set of instruction 2.describe the components of objects and mechanism descriptions. 3. explain how to write a description of an object or a mechanism 4. list the components of a process description

15 Types of description Writing
A description is a verbal and visual picture of something. 1.Object description.P.10 2. Mechanism description. P.10 3. Process description.P10 Form description: one paragraph explanation Informal description: introduction, body , and conclusion.

16 Components of a Formal Object or Mechanism Description
1.a clear and limiting title 2. an introduction and overview 3. a part-by-part description 4. a conclusion

17 Guidelines for Writing Object and Mechanism Description
Describe the object or part by it shape, dimensions, size ,color, texture, position, and/ or material For most of your descriptions, be objective. Be specific and precise, avoiding vague or general terms Compare the unfamiliar to the familiar

18 Writing a Process Description
Components of a process description Clear and limiting title Introduction Step-by-step description conclusion

19 7.3 Writing to Persuade Objectives: 1.Plan a persuasive letter
2.Organize a persuasive letter 3. Organize a sales letter and a collection letter. 4. Plan and organize a propsal

20 The purpose of Persuasive Writing
A lot of things to be persuaded to be done: to work overtime on a special project, to use a new form, to place orders, to pay the bill, etc. Most persuasive letters occurs in memos, letters and proposals.

21 Planning a persuasive letter
Identify the objective Identify the main idea Determine the supporting information Adjust the content to the reader

22 Organizing a persuasive letter
Persuasive letter are organized in indirect order—describe the need convincingly before making your request Steps: Gain the reader’s attention Show the reader that he or she has a need Explain your solution to that need—your requst Present the supporting information End by asking for s specific action

23 Writing Different Kinds of Persuasive Messages
Sales letters—persuade the potential customers to purchase a product or service. Collection letters—persuade a customer to pay a past-due bill.

24 Four stages of collection letter
1) the reminder stage—assumes has simply forgotten to make a payment, in a direct order. ,2) the strong reminder—sent when no response to the first reminder, direct and firm. 3) the discussion stage---to obtain the full payment , partial payment as temporary measure, or an explanation of why the customer has not made the appropriate payment, indirect way 4) the urgency stage—to obtain payment and advise the customer of the consequence if payment is not made immediately, direct and the tone is firm.

25 Writing Proposals A proposal is a formal report that describes a problem and recommends a solution. when you write a proposal , you suggest or propose a practical way to meet the reader’s need. Two kinds: solicited proposal—to ask for proposals to meet an identified need; unsolicited proposal—the receiver has not asked for this type of proposal.

26 Writing Proposals Planning a proposal—what is most likely to motivate this receiver to accept this proposal? Organizing a proposal –contain ten elements: introduction, background, need, scope of project ,action of project, schedule, cost, qualification, call for action, supporting information Formatting a proposal: follow the RFP closely in solicited proposal; and use subheadings to make the document inviting to read and easy to skim in unsolicited proposal.

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