5Reason for small sizeRelated to buoyancy. The smaller an organism the greater the surface area relative to weightSurface area often increased by development of pores or spinesFlotation sometimes improved by secretion of low density oilRely on turbulence to stay afloat
6BacterioplanktonKingdom Monera, smallest living organisms. Difficult to capture even with finest netMost abundant organisms (planet & ocean)Live at all ocean depths as free-living decomposers
7Phytoplankton Floating plants 99.9% of the food source in the oceans Mainly protista living in epipelagic zoneDiatoms—siliceous plantsDinoflagellates—microscopic with flagella for minor locomotionCocolithophores—calcareous plants
8Plankton are an energy source for marine ecosystems Many plankton are primary producers. Over 90% of marine primary production (energy produced) is from phytoplankton! The rest is from marine plants and other sources.Photo:Accessed: November 2010Photo: NOAAThis map shows productivity in the Oceans. Red and yellow are most productive, followed by green and blue. Black is least productive.
11DiatomsSingle celled photosynthetic Protista which secrete small shell of SiO2Reproduce by cell division until organism becomes too small; then develop auxosporeMay discolor water during large blooms
12Marine diatoms as seen through a microscope. Image ID: corp2365, NOAA At The Ends of the Earth Collection Photographer: Dr. Neil Sullivan, University of Southern Calif.
14BloomsDiatoms and other phytoplankton can divide many times per day producing large blooms that are sometimes visible from space.
15DinoflagellatesSingle celled Protista (most but not all photosynthetic)Naked cell or covering of celluloseTwo whip-like flagella allow motilitySome forms bioluminescentBlooms responsible for toxic red tides
20Zooplankton Floating animals (consumers) Most abundant in epipelagic zone but also occur in mesopelagic zoneForaminifera—single celled, calcareousRadiolaria—single celled, siliceousKrill—shrimp-like, food for baleen whalesJellyfish—multicellular, colonial
21Foraminifera & Radiolaria Microscopic Protista which feed on phytoplanktonForaminifera secrete shell of CaCO3Radiolaria secrete shell of SiO2
28Moon JellyGelatinous zooplankton common in temperate and tropical waters, stinging cells are not toxic and don’t sting like other jellyfish, 95% water but serve as food for many animals including turtles , feed by producing a sticky mucus that traps other planktonImage ID: reef2547, NOAA's Coral Kingdom Collection Photographer: Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Staff Credit: Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (moon jelly)
31Simple crustacean with jointed exoskeleton CopepodImage ID: fish3229, NOAA's Fisheries Collection Photographer: Matt Wilson/Jay Clark, NOAA NMFS AFSCSimple crustacean with jointed exoskeletonUse enlarged first antenna to swimAmong the most common animals on Earth (most abundant of the net zooplankton)
32KrillNot as abundant as copepods they aggregate into huge, dense schools, prefer colder polar waters, feed on diatoms and solid wastes of other zooplankton, important food for whales, tread water to stay afloat.Image ID: sanc0126, NOAA's Sanctuaries Collection Location: Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Photographer: Jamie Hall
34Holoplankton Regular old plankton Spend their entire life cycle as planktonExamples include: dinoflagellates, diatoms, foraminifera, krill
35MeroplanktonPlanktonic larval stages of animals which are not planktonic as adultsLarvae of snails, fish, barnacles, coral, etc.Egg cases
36Crab LarvaSome invertebrates have a whole series of different larval stagesCharleston Bump Expedition. Zooplankton. Crab larva. Image ID: expl0215, Voyage To Inner Space - Exploring the Seas With NOAA Collect Location: Southeast of Charleston, South Carolina Photo Date: 2003 August 10 Photographer: Jerry Mclelland Credit: Charleston Bump Expedition NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration; Dr. George Sedberry, South Carolina DNR, Principal Investigator
38Octopus LarvaTemporary members of the plankton, octopus and squid become nektonic (free swimming) and benthic (crawling).Giant squid are the largest invertebrates in the oceanZooplankton. Octopus larva. Image ID: fish3612, NOAA's Fisheries Collection Photographer: Matt Wilson/Jay Clark, NOAA NMFS AFSC
40Fish LarvaeImage ID: fish3363, NOAA's Fisheries Collection Photographer: Matt Wilson/Jay Clark, NOAA NMFS AFSCCoastal waters are rich in meroplankton (temporary members of the plankton)Nearly all marine fish have planktonic larvaeFish larvae may change from herbivores to carnivores as they grow