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Enemies of the Hive First Lessons in Beekeeping by Keith S. Delaplane Chapter 8 Honey Bee Disorders, Parasites, Predators and Nest Invaders.

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Presentation on theme: "Enemies of the Hive First Lessons in Beekeeping by Keith S. Delaplane Chapter 8 Honey Bee Disorders, Parasites, Predators and Nest Invaders."— Presentation transcript:

1 Enemies of the Hive First Lessons in Beekeeping by Keith S. Delaplane Chapter 8 Honey Bee Disorders, Parasites, Predators and Nest Invaders

2 Honey Bee Disorders Diseases Parasites Nest Invaders Predators Pesticides Incompetent Beekeeper

3 Integrated Pest Management The use of a variety of pest treatments such as genetic host resistance, cultural practices, beneficial organisms, and a minimum of toxic chemicals. As long as pest levels stay below the treatment or economic threshold, it is not necessary to use toxic pesticides.

4 Treatment Threshold For a given pest or crop system, the treatment threshold is the specific number, - a pest number, density or level of damage – that is acceptable p 106

5 Diseases of Brood American Foulbrood European Foulbrood Chalkbrood Sacbrood

6 Adult Diseases Nosema apis Nosema ceranae Viruses

7 Parasitic Mites Varroa destructor Tracheal Acarapis woodi

8 Scavengers Wax Moth Small Hive Beetle (Know how to distinguish between larva )

9 Predators Bears Skunks Ants Hornets Birds Mice

10 American Foulbrood Spore forming Bacterium Paenibacillus Highly infectious Highly destructive AFB spores almost indestructible No economic threshold Zero tolerance

11 American Foulbrood Treatment Burning the hive and bees is most common remedy NC has fumigation chamber See your area bee inspector Treatment – Terramycin Only suppresses growth of spores, no cure - There is no cure

12 American Foulbrood Best way to distinguish AFB from EFB - ropy dead larva

13 American Foulbrood Irregular brood pattern

14 European Foulbrood Bacterium Melissococcus plutonius Symptoms similar to AFB Less virulent

15 Chalkbrood Pathogenic fungus Asocophaera apis Dead white, chalky “ Mummies” No treatment except IPM Keep hive dry and well ventilated Prevented through good management Hygenic Queens

16 Sacbrood Relatively minor and rare disease Caused by virus No remedial medication Dead larvae are flaccid, watery Look like a Chinese slipper

17 Adult Diseases Nosema apis – most serious Single celled protozoan Nosema apis Rarely kills but triggers morbities Reduced lifespan Reduce productivity Increased queen supercedure Low population Sluggish Spring buildup

18 Nosema apis Treatment - antibotic Fumagilin B Nosema ceranae More of a recent problem in Europe

19 Viruses Kasmir bee virus Deformed wing virus Symptoms - bees lose body hair, Movement is disorganized Trembling No known treatment Cull damaged brood comb Requeen Control varroa will reduce potential infection

20 Parasitic Mites Varroa destructor

21 Tracheal Acarapis woodi

22 Varroa Mites Most damaging pest of US honey bee Introduced in US in 1987 – First found in NC in 1990 Visible to human eye Cycle begins with female mite in open brood cell, preferably drone She lays eggs – one male, several daughters They mate, emerge

23 Varroa Mites Effected bees suffer physical injury Reduced blood volume Reduced longevity Reduced productivity Typical infection occurs in late season (Fall) Hive weakened by varroa succumbs to other pests

24 Detection of Varroa Mites Sticky Sheet Powdered Sugar Shake

25 Treatment of Varroa Mite Apistan (fluvinate) – Check Mite (coumoflous) Api-life var (thymol) Formic Acid Integrated Pest Management Screened bottom boards Hygenic Queen

26 Tracheal Mite Acarapis woodi Long history of troubling the honey bee Has been around for more than a century First detected in NC in 1980 Honey bee Act of 1922, a response closed importation for 83 years

27 Characteristics of Tracheal Mite Lives and reproduces in breathing tube Young bees are preferred Microscopic Infestation occurs in late winter Or early spring 25% infestation is very damaging

28 Symptoms of Tracheal Mites Bees will crawl in grass near hive entrance Cannot form an effective winter cluster Most common symptom is an empty hive K-wing syndrome

29 Treatment of Tracheal Mite Menthol crystals Mite – Away II, an absorbent pad with formic acid - Extender patty - vegetable oil and powders sugar – disrupts mite and is harmless to environment, or bee keeper

30 Nest Scavengers Wax Moth Small Hive Beetle

31 Wax Moth Galleria mellonella An old foe And strangely, a friend, too Cleans out abandoned nests, spores rendering them clean for future use Problem occurs when wax moths take over weak hive and destroy it

32 Damage by Wax Moth

33 Wax Moth Female enters hive, usually at night Lays eggs Larvae emerge, eat protein litter Seeks a protected spot Chews cavity in wood Spins silken cocoon and pupates

34 Characteristics of Wax Moth Moth activity in living colonies Moth activity in stored equipment Moths are secondary problem, not a primary problem Moth Problem usually traced to queenless colony or varroa mites

35 Treatment for Moths Paradichlorobenzene in stored equip. Stack stored hives cross ways to allow light and ventilation (see p 128) Requeen Control Varroa mites Use 9 frames in supers rather than 10

36 Wax Moth Larva Compared with SHB Larva Wax Moth Larva SHB Larva

37 Small Hive Beetle Most recent pest Scavenger Not a major threat to strong colony Can quickly wipe out a weak colony Has become a major problem in SE US First found in NC in 1998

38 Small Hive Beetle Adult female lays eggs in cavity Larvae emerge to eat honey, brood, protein litter and grow Larval is most damaging stage Frames become slimy Larvae exits hive to pupate in soil

39 Small Hive Beetle Treatment threshold is 300 beetles according to Delaplane Personally, I think it is much less!

40 Treatment of Small Hive Beetle Integrated Pest Management Hygenic Bees SHB traps Hive tool smash

41 Predators Bear Skunk Ants Hornets Birds Pesticides Mice

42 Non-infectious Disorders Queenlessness Robbing Agricultural Pesticides Incompetent Beekeeper

43 Good, Disease Free Brood Pattern

44 Thought of an old beekeeper “ We are all born ignorant, but one must work hard to remain stupid.” Benjamin Franklin


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