Presentation on theme: "Beneficial Nematodes for Hive Beetle Control Amanda Rose Newton 07.10.2013."— Presentation transcript:
Beneficial Nematodes for Hive Beetle Control Amanda Rose Newton
What is a Nematode?? Small worm-like creatures that like insects are classified as Arthropods Most plentiful animal on earth Microscopic Both destructive and beneficial
Nematodes Nematodes have funky lifestyles! Can be hermaphroditic or reproduces with mate once inside host Been used in biocontrol since 1960s Primarily used for caterpillars, grubs, maggots, etc. due to host seeking abilities Recently used successfully against snails and slugs
Hive Beetles Small scarab beetle native to South Africa Has been in US for roughly 30 years Super Problematic in the South- loves heat and humidity! Overwinters underground in soil as grubs
Life Cycle 1. Adult moves into colony 2. Builds Population 3. Reproduces 4. Damage to brood, pollen, and honey 5. Larvae leaves to pupate 6. Pupation and Emergence 7. Reinvasion
What is the Problem? Hive beetles feed on honey, dead bees, and pollen. Extremely destructive to the hive Fecal matter discolors honey product and changes flavor; unsuitable for consumption
Current Solutions Traps- several that attach at base or along sides of hive Chemicals- many pyrethin based chemical tags on market Nematodes
Effective? Beetle traps are certainly effective for adults NOT effective for control of larva!
Hive Beetle Trap Efficacy
How Nematode Control Works Form of biocontrol Targets beetles BEFORE destructive adult stage! Nematodes consume larva and reduce number of adult emergence in spring Ideal for keepers who already are seeing issues
Nematode Research 3 year Grant from EBA to study 2 species of nematodes and efficacy on hive beetle control Began in Fall 2012 since targets were overwintering as larva 2 species- Heterorhabditis indica and Steinrnema carpocapsae reared in lab. Releases will be made as soon as first freeze takes effect Results measured following spring Lab nematodes were also fed hive beetle larva in controlled setting to determine efficacy
Protocol Nematodes monitored in lab, kept in cadavers of hive beetles, mealworms, and Japanese beetles. In 2 years of study, showed little preference among three Area around hive sectioned into grid and cadavers were collected from area following application
Steinernema carpocapsae These nematodes are fairly broad spectrum and are effective against weevils, borers, rootworms, armyworms, Japanese beetle, and hive beetles. Hive Beetle Efficacy assumed but not well documented. Testing to determine feeding preference of this species.
Heterorhabditis indica Heat and cold tolerant Used primarily for white grubs and hive beetle control Also successful in greenhouses for many gnat species Well Researched
Efficacy of Nematode Treatment Ellis JD, Delaplane KS, et al. published a paper that stated soil injected nematodes allowed for beetle control for +/- 19 weeks resulting in 76-94% mortality Just 15 days post- application, soil treatments caused 78% control in a study by Shapiro-Ilan DI, et al.
How Nematodes Work Nematodes are injected into soil or simply watered over area in a solution. They will immediately “seek out” potential host Penetrates larva through openings Release bacteria into bloodstream Causes septicemia and kills host in hrs
Where to get Nematodes Several Mail Order Companies Some nurseries Grow your own!
Creating Your Own Culture You can set up your own culture at home- very cost effective! All you need is a 4- 6 oz Tupperware container, moist soil, and meal worm or other grub to serve as “volunteer” cadavers
1. Make the Housing Supplies: ◦Tupperware container ◦Lid with air holes ◦Moist soil ◦Water ◦Meal Worms
2. Prepare meal media Remember, nematodes count as “aquatic” species Soil should be moistened with water until darkened Then, it can be added to container with mealworms Oats can be added as mealworm chow, if you feel generous Add your nemas and your mealworms
3. Removing nematodes You probably won’t be able to see your nematodes Note that adults live about 15 days, but will hopefully reproduce Fun Fact: bacteria associated with Heterorhabditis sp. Will turn your cadavers orange/red- good indicator that things are moving along as planned.
Long Term Nematode Rearing If plan on keeping nematodes year round, recommend compost bucket method Predatory nematodes need a variety of food sources and living in compost provides this Similar to Vermiculture; low maintenance KEEP MOIST
Releasing Nematodes To get nematodes ready for release, can mix with small amount of water in spray bottle or put in small injector bottle Due to small size, should be able to spray easily If going compost route, just scoop and place around area and water.
Optimal Release Times Hive Beetle Larva overwinter so the best time to release nematodes is when we know they are in ground! Recommended to release after the first frost, before pupal development. January-April
Monitoring Efficacy Can be hard to determine if nematodes are doing their job! Best way: OBSERVATION! ◦Take notes ◦Look for cadavers in soil ◦Observe numbers of adults in spring ◦Compare to previous years