2 Why Classify? To study the diversity of life, biologists use a classification system to name organisms &group them in a logical manner.
3 In other words, naming things. TaxonomyDefined:Discipline of classifying organisms and assigning each organism a universally accepted name.In other words, naming things.
4 Why common names don’t work Common names vary among languages.Example:United Kingdom – Buzzard refers to a hawkUnited States – Buzzard refers to a vultureRed-tailed HawkHoney BuzzardTurkey Vulture
5 Another Example:Dolphin DolphinTursipos truncatus Mahi mahi
6 Carolus Linnaeus(1707 – 1778)Created the system of naming we use today.In taxonomy, a group or level of organization is called a taxonomic category or taxon.
7 Binomial Nomenclature “Bi” means 2“nomial” means namingNomenclature means “the system of”Defined:In binomial nomenclature, each species is assigned a two-part scientific name. (Genus & species)
8 Example of Binomial Nomenclature Polar Bear is Ursus maritimusUrsus: genusUrsus contains 5 other kinds of bearsmaritimus: speciesThe Latin word, maritimus, refers to the sea.Polar bears often live on pack ice that floats in the sea.
9 Definitions to know Genus: is a group of closely related species Species: Group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
10 Family: Group of genera that share many characteristicsOrder: Group of similar familiesClass: Group of similar ordersPhylum: Group of closely related classesKingdom: Largest taxonomic group,consisting of closely relatedphyla.
11 What do these mean?...lets see Here We Go… Polar BearSpecies: maritimusGenus: UrsusFamily: UrsidaeOrder: CarnivoraClass: MammaliaPhylum: ChordataKingdom: AnimiliaWhat do these mean?...lets see
12 What they mean Species: maritimus (lives in marine environment) Genus: Ursus (kind of bear)Family: Ursidae (larger category of bears)Order: Carnivora (meat-eating animals)Class: Mammalia (warm-blooded, hair, & milk)Phylum: Chordata (vertebrates)Kingdom: Animilia (there are 6 kingdoms)
13 How to remember: Da King Phillip Came Over For Green Salad Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
16 The Three-Domain System There are 3 Domains:Domain BacteriaDomain ArchaeaDomain EukaryaThere are 6 Kingdoms:1. Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista4. Fungi Plantae Animalia
17 The Three-Domain System There are 3 Domains:Domain BacteriaKingdom EubacteriaUnicellular/ProkaryotesCell walls have PeptidoglycanDomain ArchaeaKingdom ArchaebacteriaCell walls withOUT PeptidoglycanDomain EukaryaKingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
18 Kingdom Archaebacteria Unicellular ProkaryoteCell walls withOUT PeptidoglycanExtremophiles – Love extreme environmentslike volcanoes, hydrothermal vents, and hot springsArchaea Hydrothermal Vent Hot Spring Volcaone
19 Kingdom Eubacteria Unicellular Prokaryote Cell walls with PeptidoglycanAll other bacteria you encounter everydayE. coli Staphlycoccus Streptococcus
20 Kingdom Protista Unicellular or Multicellular Live in colonies Video Clip: AmoebaUnicellular or MulticellularLive in coloniesAmoeba Euglena Paramecium
21 3 Categories of Protista Plant-likeExample: AlgaePerform photosynthesis (autotrophs)Animal-likeExample: AmoebaCan cause disease (malaria, sleeping sickness)Fungus-likeExample: Slime molds
22 Plant-like Protists Algae Euglena Live in shallow water Photosynthetic (autotrophic)Can also be heterotrophic when light not availableAbsorb nutrientsIngest other organisms
23 Animal-like Protists Also called Protozoans 4 Types Ciliates (Example: Paramecium)Sarcodina (Example: Amoeba)ZooflagellatesSporozoans
25 Kingdom Fungi Unicellular or Multicellular Cell walls made of Chitin Heterotrophs….they eat!Yeast Mushrooms
26 Kingdom FungiHyphaeThread-like structures which form all parts of the fungusMain function is to help fungus obtain food – provide large surface area for absorption of nutrients
27 Kingdom Plantae Multicellular Cell walls made of Cellulose Autotrophs….make their own foodTrees & Grass Moss Venus Fly Trap
28 Kingdom Animalia Multicellular NO cell walls Heterotrophs….they eat Worms Insects Jellyfish Giraffes
29 6 Kingdoms Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia ProkaryoteProkaryoteEukaryoteEukaryoteEukaryoteEukaryoteAutotroph orheterotrophAutotroph orheterotrophAutotroph/heterotrophHeterotrophAutotrophHeterotrophMost common bacteriaCell wall w/ PeptidoglycanIncludes AlgaeDon’t belong in other eukNo cell wallNo chloroplastsMulticellular“Ancient Bacteria”Cell wallsw/cellulose& ChloroplastsRelease enzymes to digest foodLive in very hot placesE. ecoliPyrococcus furiosusParameciumH. coccineaFern frodHomo sapiens
30 Write Scientific Names Correctly The scientific name is always the Genus and species taxa of the organismGenus capitalizedSpecies lower casedUnderline if hand writtenItalics if typedHomo sapiensGenus speciesCanis lupisHippocampus erectus
31 Scientific Name: Genus species If these three species belong to the same genus, they are descended from a common ancestor.Felis domesticadomesticaDomestic CatFelisFelis leoleoLionFelis margaritamargaritaSand cat`
32 A Problem with Traditional Classification Example: The Crab, The barnacle, & The limpetThe barnacle and the limpet have similarly shaped shells & look alikeThe crab has a very different body formBased on anatomy, the barnacle & limpet could be classified together and the crab in a different group.
33 This incorrect because crabs and barnacles are actually related
34 Segmentation Free swimming Larva Draw this!CrustaceansGastropodsMolted ExoskeletonEven though they do not look a like, crabs & barnacles are actually relatedSegmentationFree swimming Larva
35 Classification Using Cladograms Cladogram: A diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms.
36 Segmentation Free swimming Larva Molted Exoskeleton CrustaceansGastropodsMolted ExoskeletonUsing Cladograms, you can see that crabs and barnacles share similar characteristics because they both molt & are segmentedSegmentationFree swimming Larva
37 You can also see that ALL have a free swimming larva stage CrustaceansGastropodsMolted ExoskeletonYou can also see that ALL have a free swimming larva stageSegmentationFree swimming Larva
41 These are T4 Bacteriophage Where do viruses go?Viruses: Are particles of nucleic acid, protein, and in some cases lipids that can reproduce ONLY by infecting living cells.Viruses are made of a core of either DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat.These are T4 BacteriophageA bacteriophage is a virus which infects bacteria
42 Where do viruses go? (continued) Viruses are not considered alive because they don’t have ALL the characteristics of life.Example: They can’t reproduce independentlyThese are the Influenza VirusesInfluenza or "flu" is an infection of the respiratory tract that can affect millions of people every year.