Presentation on theme: "Classification/Taxonomy Chapter 17. Why Classify? Why Classify? To study the diversity of life, biologists use a classification system to name organisms."— Presentation transcript:
Classification/Taxonomy Chapter 17
Why Classify? Why Classify? To study the diversity of life, biologists use a classification system to name organisms & group them in a logical manner.
Taxonomy Defined: Discipline of classifying organisms and assigning each organism a universally accepted name. In other words, naming things.
Why common names don’t work Common names vary among languages. Example: United Kingdom – Buzzard refers to a hawk United States – Buzzard refers to a vulture Red-tailed HawkHoney BuzzardTurkey Vulture
Another Example: Dolphin Dolphin Tursipos truncatus Mahi mahi
Carolus Linnaeus (1707 – 1778) (1707 – 1778) Created the system of naming we use today. Created the system of naming we use today. In taxonomy, a group or level of organization is called a taxonomic category or taxon. In taxonomy, a group or level of organization is called a taxonomic category or taxon.
Binomial Nomenclature “Bi” means 2 “Bi” means 2 “nomial” means naming “nomial” means naming Nomenclature means “the system of” Nomenclature means “the system of” Defined: In binomial nomenclature, each species is assigned a two-part scientific name. (Genus & species)
Example of Binomial Nomenclature Polar Bear is Ursus maritimus Polar Bear is Ursus maritimus Ursus: genus Ursus: genus Ursus contains 5 other kinds of bears Ursus contains 5 other kinds of bears maritimus: species maritimus: species The Latin word, maritimus, refers to the sea. The Latin word, maritimus, refers to the sea. Polar bears often live on pack ice that floats in the sea. Polar bears often live on pack ice that floats in the sea.
Definitions to know Genus : is a group of closely related species Genus : is a group of closely related species Species : Group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring Species : Group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
Family: Group of genera that share many Family: Group of genera that share many characteristics characteristics Order: Group of similar families Order: Group of similar families Class: Group of similar orders Class: Group of similar orders Phylum: Group of closely related classes Phylum: Group of closely related classes Kingdom: Largest taxonomic group, Kingdom: Largest taxonomic group, consisting of closely related consisting of closely related phyla. phyla.
Here We Go… Polar Bear Species: maritimus Genus: Ursus Family: Ursidae Order: Carnivora Class: Mammalia Phylum: Chordata Kingdom: Animilia What do these mean?...lets see
What they mean Species: maritimus (lives in marine environment) Genus: Ursus (kind of bear) Family: Ursidae (larger category of bears) Order: Carnivora (meat-eating animals) Class: Mammalia (warm-blooded, hair, & milk) Phylum: Chordata (vertebrates) Kingdom: Animilia (there are 6 kingdoms)
How to remember: Da King Phillip Came Over For Green Salad Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Carnivora Family Ursidae Genus Ursus Species maritimus
The Three-Domain System There are 3 Domains: There are 3 Domains: Domain Bacteria Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea Domain Archaea Domain Eukarya Domain Eukarya There are 6 Kingdoms: There are 6 Kingdoms: 1. Eubacteria 2. Archaebacteria 3. Protista 4. Fungi 5. Plantae 6. Animalia
The Three-Domain System There are 3 Domains: There are 3 Domains: Domain Bacteria Domain Bacteria Kingdom Eubacteria Kingdom Eubacteria Unicellular/Prokaryotes Unicellular/Prokaryotes Cell walls have Peptidoglycan Cell walls have Peptidoglycan Domain Archaea Domain Archaea Kingdom Archaebacteria Kingdom Archaebacteria Unicellular/Prokaryotes Unicellular/Prokaryotes Cell walls withOUT Peptidoglycan Cell walls withOUT Peptidoglycan Domain Eukarya Domain Eukarya Kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia Kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
Kingdom Archaebacteria - Unicellular Prokaryote - Cell walls withOUT Peptidoglycan - Extremophiles – Love extreme environments like volcanoes, hydrothermal vents, and hot springs like volcanoes, hydrothermal vents, and hot springs Archaea Hydrothermal Vent Hot Spring Volcaone
Kingdom Eubacteria - Unicellular Prokaryote - Cell walls with Peptidoglycan - All other bacteria you encounter everyday E. coli Staphlycoccus Streptococcus
Kingdom Protista - Unicellular or Multicellular - Live in colonies Amoeba Euglena Paramecium Video Clip: Amoeba
Plant-like Protists Algae Algae Euglena Euglena Live in shallow water Live in shallow water Photosynthetic (autotrophic) Photosynthetic (autotrophic) Can also be heterotrophic when light not available Can also be heterotrophic when light not available Absorb nutrients Absorb nutrients Ingest other organisms Ingest other organisms
Animal-like Protists Also called Protozoans Also called Protozoans 4 Types 4 Types 1. Ciliates (Example: Paramecium) 2. Sarcodina (Example: Amoeba) 3. Zooflagellates 4. Sporozoans
Kingdom Fungi - Unicellular or Multicellular - Cell walls made of Chitin - Heterotrophs….they eat! Yeast Mushrooms
Kingdom Fungi Hyphae Thread-like structures which form all parts of the fungus Main function is to help fungus obtain food – provide large surface area for absorption of nutrients
Kingdom Plantae - Multicellular - Cell walls made of Cellulose - Autotrophs….make their own food Trees & Grass Moss Venus Fly Trap
Kingdom Animalia - Multicellular - NO cell walls - Heterotrophs….they eat Worms Insects Jellyfish Giraffes
6 Kingdoms Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia E. ecoliParamecium Fern frod H. coccineaHomo sapiensPyrococcus furiosus Prokaryote Eukaryote Autotroph or heterotroph Autotroph or heterotroph Autotroph/ heterotroph Heterotroph Autotroph Most common bacteria Cell wall w/ Peptidoglycan Live in very hot places Includes Algae Don’t belong in other euk Cell walls w/cellulose & Chloroplasts Release enzymes to digest food No cell wall No chloroplasts Multicellular “Ancient Bacteria”
Write Scientific Names Correctly The scientific name is always the Genus and species taxa of the organism The scientific name is always the Genus and species taxa of the organism Genus capitalized Genus capitalized Species lower cased Species lower cased Underline if hand written Underline if hand written Italics if typed Italics if typed Homo sapiens Genus species Canis lupis Hippocampus erectus
If these three species belong to the same genus, they are descended from a common ancestor. Scientific Name: Genus species Felis domestica leo margarita Sand cat` Lion Domestic Cat Felis domestica Felis leo Felis margarita
A Problem with Traditional Classification Example: The Crab, The barnacle, & The limpet The barnacle and the limpet have similarly shaped shells & look alike The barnacle and the limpet have similarly shaped shells & look alike The crab has a very different body form The crab has a very different body form Based on anatomy, the barnacle & limpet could be classified together and the crab in a different group. Based on anatomy, the barnacle & limpet could be classified together and the crab in a different group.
Related This incorrect because crabs and barnacles are actually related
Crustaceans Even though they do not look a like, crabs & barnacles are actually related Gastropods Molted Exoskeleton Segmentation Free swimming Larva Draw this!
Classification Using Cladograms Cladogram : A diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms.
Crustaceans Using Cladograms, you can see that crabs and barnacles share similar characteristics because they both molt & are segmented Gastropods Molted Exoskeleton Segmentation Free swimming Larva
Crustaceans You can also see that ALL have a free swimming larva stage Gastropods Molted Exoskeleton Segmentation Free swimming Larva
Dichotomous Key Statements that describe organisms to help identify them Statements that describe organisms to help identify them Always start with the first 2 statements Always start with the first 2 statements
Where do viruses go? Viruses: Are particles of nucleic acid, protein, and in some cases lipids that can reproduce ONLY by infecting living cells. Viruses are made of a core of either DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat. These are T4 Bacteriophage A bacteriophage is a virus which infects bacteria
Where do viruses go? (continued) Viruses are not considered alive because they don’t have ALL the characteristics of life. Example: They can’t reproduce independently These are the Influenza Viruses Influenza or "flu" is an infection of the respiratory tract that can affect millions of people every year.