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Introduction to Phylum Arthropoda. Segmented body. Paired segmented appendages. Bilateral symmetry. Chitinous exoskeleton. Tubular alimentary canal with.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Phylum Arthropoda. Segmented body. Paired segmented appendages. Bilateral symmetry. Chitinous exoskeleton. Tubular alimentary canal with."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Phylum Arthropoda

2 Segmented body. Paired segmented appendages. Bilateral symmetry. Chitinous exoskeleton. Tubular alimentary canal with mouth and anus. Open circulatory system, a tubular dorsal blood vessel. Body cavity or coelom. Nervous system of anterior ganglia and paired nerve cords. Striated muscles in skeletal system. Respiration by gills, tracheae, or spiracle. Phylum Arthropoda

3 Insects Arachnids (spiders, ticks, mites, etc.) Crustaceans Millipedes Centipedes Phylum Arthropoda Sod Webworm Moth, Crambus sp. Cottonwood Leaf Beetle, Chrysomela scripta CUES,

4 Class Crustacea: Crabs, lobsters, sowbugs Crayfish Two main body sections. Five to seven pairs of legs. Two pairs of antennae. Simple eyes. O.F.A.H.

5 Class Crustacea: Crabs, lobsters, sowbugs Pillbugs

6 Class Chilopoda: Centipedes One pair of legs per body segment. Flattened body. First pair of legs modified as venomous fangs. Nocturnal predators. Few are dangerous to humans. Department of Entomology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Garden Centipede, Lithobius forficatus

7 Class Chilopoda: Centipedes Georgia Forestry Commission Archives Georgia Forestry Commission Fangs of Scolopendrid Centipede (above) House Centipede, Scutigera coleoptrata (right) Department of Entomology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

8 Class Diplopoda: Millipedes Two pairs of legs per body segment. Cylindrical body. Feed on decaying plant material. Nocturnal. Harmless. Emily G. Tenczar Pet African Giant Millipedes

9 Class Diplopoda: Millipedes Photos by William Leonard, Tree of Life Web Project,

10 Class Arachnida: Spiders, ticks, mites, harvestman, scorpions, etc. Yellow Garden Spider Tick Mite

11 Class Arachnida Mouthparts are called chelicerae. Most contain venom. Antennae are absent. Four pairs of legs. Book lungs for respiration. Blacklegged Tick, Ixodes scapularis Ronald F. Billings Texas Forest Service Yellow Garden Spider, Argiope aurantia Scott Bauer, USDA Agricultural Research Service,

12 Two body regions (cephalothorax, abdomen). Fangs (chelicerae), most are venomous. Most are not dangerous. Most make webs. Most have poor eyesight; hairs compensate for it (jumping spiders are an exception). Potentially dangerous spiders (bites are uncommon): Brown recluse spider, Black widow spider Class Arachnida: Order Araneae: Spiders David Cappaert, Jumping Spider, Phidippus audax

13 Class Arachnida: Order Araneae: Spiders David Keith, Department of Entomology University of Nebraska-Lincoln Crab Spider, Misumenoides formosipes Wolf Spider, Lycosa carolinensis James O. Howell, The University of Georgia,

14 One apparent body region. Abdomen and cephalothorax short. Common and harmless. Nocturnal. Feed on detritus, fruit, or other animals. Class Arachnida: Order Opiliones: Harvestman (Daddy Longlegs) Leiobunum sp. Joseph Berger,

15 Long tail with sting. Pedipalps are modified as pinchers. Most scorpion stings are no worse than bee stings; only a minority of species are potentially dangerous. Nocturnal. Common in warm climates. Feed on other animals. Class Arachnida: Order Scorpiones: Scorpions Striped Bark Scorpion, Centruroides vittatus, gravid female from Texas E. Tenczar

16 Class Arachnida: Order Scorpiones: Scorpions Northern Desert Hairy Scorpion, Hadrurus spadix, native to US E. Tenczar Emperor Scorpion, Pandinus imperator, female eating cockroach, native to West Africa E. Tenczar

17 Class Arachnida: Order Scorpiones: Scorpions Arizona Bark Scorpion, Centruroides exilicauda, mating E. Tenczar

18 Class Arachnida: Order Scorpiones: Scorpions Lined Devil Scorpion, Vaejovis spinigerus, female from Arizona with young Flat Rock Scorpion, Hadogenes troglodytes, female, native to South Africa E. Tenczar

19 Class Arachnida: Order Scorpiones: Scorpions Slenderbrown Bark Scorpion, Centruroides gracilis, male from Central America Pandinus imperator; scorpions glow under UV/ black light E. Tenczar

20 Class Arachnida: Order Scorpiones: Scorpions E. Tenczar Black Thick-Tailed Scorpion, Parabuthus transvaalicus, a highly venomous species native to South Africa

21 Ticks have two body regions. Young have six legs, adults have eight. There are hard and soft-bodied ticks. Ticks are much larger than mites, some females as large as a nickel. Class Arachnida: Order Acari: Ticks Blacklegged Tick, Ixodes scapularis Jim Occi, BugPics,

22 Mites have only one noticeable body region. Many are microscopic or close to it. Class Arachnida: Order Acari: Mites

23 Female: round abdomen Male: pointed abdomen Larva 3 pairs of legs Mites

24 Predatory mites: Phytoseiulus persimilis Family Phytoseiidae: Predatory mites

25 Found in turf. Long front legs. Make webbing in fall. Clover Mite, Bryobia praetiosa Family Tetranychidae: Spider mites

26 Epiclass Hexapoda: Insects, springtails, diplurans, proturans Three distinct body regions: head, thorax, abdomen. One pair antenna. One pair of mandibles. One pair of maxillae. Three pairs of legs on thorax. Tracheal respiratory system- composed of tubes with holes (spiracles) through the body that admit air. Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica

27 Class Insecta: Insects Protruding mouthparts, unlike non-insect hexapods. Ametabolous, hemimetabolous, parametabolus, or holometabolous. Most have wings. Milkweed Leaf Beetle, Labidomera clivicollis David Cappaert,

28 Class Insecta: Order Thysanura: Silverfish Ametabolous: simple metamorphosis. Three tail-like appendages. Body flattened and covered with scales. Wingless adults. Difference between nymphs and adults is size. Found in wet places. Lepisma saccharina Clemson University - USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series

29 Class Insecta: Pterygota: Winged Insects Most adult forms have wings. Hemimetabolous, parametabolus, or holometabolous. Polyphemus Moth, Antheraea polyphemus Lacy L. Hyche Auburn University

30 Class Insecta: Order Odonata: Dragonflies and damselflies Hemimetabolous metamorphosis: simple, incomplete. Toothed mandibles (chewing mouthparts). Winged adults. Nymphs and adults different in appearance. Aquatic nymphs with gills. Indicate good water quality. Damselfly David Cappaert,

31 Class Insecta: Pterygota, Neoptera These insects can fold their wings back over the body. Green Stink Bug, Acrosternum hilare David Cappaert,

32 Class Insecta: Order Orthoptera: Grasshoppers, katydids, and crickets Straight wings. Winged adults. Chewing mouthparts. Nymphs and adults in same habitat. Nymphs and adults similar in appearance. Russ Ottens, The University of Georgia Redlegged Grasshopper, Melanoplus femurrubrum

33 Class Insecta: Order Mantodea: Mantids Winged adults. Chewing mouthparts. Nymphs and adults in same habitat. Nymphs and adults similar in appearance. Clemson University Praying Mantis

34 Class Insecta: Order Blattaria: Cockroaches Winged adults. Chewing mouthparts. Nymphs and adults in same habitat. Nymphs and adults similar in appearance. American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana Clemson University - USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series

35 Class Insecta: Order Isoptera: Termites Equal wings. Winged adults. Chewing mouthparts. Nymphs and adults in same habitat. Nymphs and adults similar in appearance. Gerald J. Lenhard, Formosan Subterranean Termite, Coptotermes formosanus

36 Class Insecta: Order Dermaptera: Earwigs Skin-like front wings. Winged adults. Chewing mouthparts. Nymphs and adults in same habitat. Nymphs and adults similar in appearance. Striped Earwig, Labidura riparia Joseph Berger,

37 Class Insecta: Order Phthiraptera (Mallophaga and Anoplura): Lice Wingless adults. Chewing or sucking mouthparts. Nymphs and adults in same habitat. Nymphs and adults similar in appearance. Sucking Louse, Haematopinus eurysternus Iowa State University''s Entomology Image Gallery

38 Order Hemiptera: Suborder Auchenorhyncha Cicadas, hoppers (formerly Order Homoptera) Spittlebug Leafhopper

39 Lacewings Beetles Scorpionflies Fleas Flies Caddisflies Moths and butterflies Sawflies, wasps, and bees Class Insecta: Pterygota, Neoptera, Endopterygota: Holometabolous/ complete metamorphosis Forest Tent Caterpillars, Malacosoma disstria Herbert A. "Joe" Pase III, Texas Forest Service,

40 Class Insecta: Order Neuroptera: Lacewings, antlions, owlflies Green Lacewing, Chrysoperla sp., Adult (left) and Larva (right) Bradley Higbee, Paramount Farming,

41 Class Insecta: Order Coleoptera: Beetles Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica, Adult (left) and Scarab Larva (below)

42 Class Insecta: Order Coleoptera: Beetles Hardened forewings (elytra). Winged adults. Chewing mouthparts. Larvae and adults in same habitat. Larvae and adults not similar in appearance.

43 Class Insecta: Order Siphonoptera: Fleas Wingless adults. Sucking mouthparts. Larvae and adults not similar in appearance. Often pests of mammals. Oriental Rat Flea, Xenopsylla cheopis David R. Maddison, Tree of Life Web Project

44 Class Insecta: Order Diptera: Flies Tachinid Fly Adult Michigan State University Fly Larva (maggot)

45 Class Insecta: Order Diptera: Flies Winged adults. 2 nd pair of wings are halteres. Larvae and adults often in same habitat. Larvae and adults not similar in appearance. Some spread diseases to humans and livestock. Some are parasitoids.

46 Class Insecta: Order Lepidoptera: Moths and butterflies Cankerworm Larvae (right) and Adult (below) CUES

47 Class Insecta: Order Lepidoptera: Moths and butterflies Winged adults. Larvae and adults not similar in appearance. Most larvae feed on plant tissue. Many moths are pests; most butterflies are not.

48 Class Insecta: Order Hymenoptera: Sawflies, wasps, bees, ants Introduced Pine Sawfly, Diprion similis, Adults (left) and Larva (right) John H. Ghent USDA Forest Service CUES,

49 Class Insecta: Order Hymenoptera: Sawflies, wasps, bees, ants Membranous wings. Winged adults. Larvae and adults not similar in appearance. Sawflies are phytophagous. Some wasps are parasitoids. Many wasps, bees, and all ants are social.


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