Presentation on theme: "Microscopic life in the water. Life evolved in the water (It is an easier environment to live in) You are never short of water so you don’t need adaptations."— Presentation transcript:
Microscopic life in the water
Life evolved in the water (It is an easier environment to live in) You are never short of water so you don’t need adaptations to reduce water loss Water temperature hardly changes so you don’t need mechanisms of thermoregulation (like sweating) Water provides a lot of support so you don’t need a strong skeleton Waste products are easily got rid of
There are some problems Osmosis: specially a problem in freshwater (think) Viscosity makes it harder to move through (think of a solution) Water contains less oxygen than the air
Solving osmosis problems Water entry is not a problem for plants (Why?) Water constantly crosses animal cell membranes by osmosis Sometimes a waterproof skin is not practical Amoeba has a contractile vacuole Water is pumped into the vacuole, which increases in size Eventually it goes to the surface and bursts
Fish on the move Salmon and eels move from saltwater to freshwater In the sea water leaves and salt enters In rivers water enters They have adapted their kidneys and gills to cope
Salmon kidneys Able to produce very concentrated urine containing very little water when in the sea Produce large amounts of very dilute urine in rivers
Salmon gills At sea, special cells in the gills pump out sodium and chloride ions using active transport. In rivers the active transport switches round to the other direction
Some animals are adapted to both E.g. frogs Some have aquatic and terrestrial stages of their life cycle E.g. insects and frogs
Metamorphosis Total change in body shape Allows adult and larva to live in different environment Reduces competition between adult and larva
Plankton Plankton with cell walls and chlorophyll is called phytoplankton (also called algae) Plankton with no cell wall or chlorophyll is called zooplankton Phytoplankton (obviously) do photosynthesis.
Algal blooms Phytoplankton change in numbers depending on –Temperature So changes are seasonal –Concentration of nitrates and phosphates what are these used for? A large explosion in population is called an algal bloom
Eutrophication Fertilizer/sewage in water increases nitrate/phosphate concentration Algae grow rapidly (algal bloom) Increased competition means lots of dead algae Decomposers break down dead algae and use up oxygen while doing respiration Fish die due to lack of oxygen
Biological pollution indicators Some species need high oxygen concentrations and low levels of pollution to survive –E.g. mayfly larva Others can tolerate high levels of pollution and low levels of oxygen –E.g. blood worm Some species can tolerate acidic environments and can be used to test for….?
PCBs and DDT PCBs are chemicals that were used extensively in various industries DDT is a pesticide They do not break down in the environment
Bioaccumulation Chemicals flow, leach or are blown into the water They enter the bodies of aquatic plants and animals Consumers eat many organisms that contain these chemicals Top predators consume the highest levels PCBs affect reproduction Seals and whales are effected. And…?