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Natural History of Stream Invertebrates: Using and Making Sense of Biotic Indices, and Beyond.

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Presentation on theme: "Natural History of Stream Invertebrates: Using and Making Sense of Biotic Indices, and Beyond."— Presentation transcript:

1 Natural History of Stream Invertebrates: Using and Making Sense of Biotic Indices, and Beyond

2 Natural History The study and description of organisms and natural objects, especially their origins, evolution, and interrelationshipsThe study and description of organisms and natural objects, especially their origins, evolution, and interrelationships caddisfly sowbug

3 Natural History Some examples related to aquatic macroinvertebrates might include:Some examples related to aquatic macroinvertebrates might include: –Ecology ( relationships between living organisms and the non-living components of the environment in which they live) –Behavior –Functional feeding groups

4 What Problems Must Macroinvertebrates Solve Because They Live In Streams? Aqueous medium (tough to get O 2 )Aqueous medium (tough to get O 2 ) Medium that is generally moving upstream-downstreamMedium that is generally moving upstream-downstream Diel variation in physio-chemical characteristicsDiel variation in physio-chemical characteristics Seasonal variation in hydrologySeasonal variation in hydrology Connected to upstream conditionsConnected to upstream conditions Linked to land-water interfaceLinked to land-water interface black flies

5 Feeding Groups or Guilds Shredders - Coarse woody or plant associated materialsShredders - Coarse woody or plant associated materials Filtering Collectors - Suspended particulates, microbes, phytoplanktonFiltering Collectors - Suspended particulates, microbes, phytoplankton Gathering Collectors - Deposited particulatesGathering Collectors - Deposited particulates Grazers/Scrapers - Peryiphyton & fungiGrazers/Scrapers - Peryiphyton & fungi Predators - especially invertebratesPredators - especially invertebrates caddisfly stonefly

6 Some Guiding Principles for Classification Everyone can classify objectsEveryone can classify objects Ways macroinvertebrates may be classified:Ways macroinvertebrates may be classified: –Functional feeding groups –Morphology –Locomotion –Microhabitat –Type of metamorphosis –Means of obtaining oxygen –Need for oxygen / Ability of stream to provide that oxygen net spinning caddisfly

7 Biotic Indices A way to classify based on macroinvertebrates’ tolerance to pollutionA way to classify based on macroinvertebrates’ tolerance to pollution –Generally this means organic pollution Or that which affects oxygen levels in the streamOr that which affects oxygen levels in the stream

8 Biotic Indices Some organisms require water with a lot of oxygen in itSome organisms require water with a lot of oxygen in it Others have adaptations to obtaining the oxygen they needOthers have adaptations to obtaining the oxygen they need

9 Adaptations for Obtaining Oxygen Morphological –Tubes –Soft tissue between segments & gills –Hair-like/Plate-like wings Behavioral -Body pumping -Swimming to surface -Construct burrows or tubes

10 Biotic Indices Assign pollution tolerance values to organisms based on their oxygen needsAssign pollution tolerance values to organisms based on their oxygen needs Order levelOrder level Fairly Simple: Excellent, Good, Fair, PoorFairly Simple: Excellent, Good, Fair, Poor Tolerance values 1, 2, 3 and 4Tolerance values 1, 2, 3 and 4 # Group 1 * tolerance value (4)= # Group 2 * tolerance value (3)= # Group 3 * tolerance value (2)= # Group 4 * tolerance value (1)= SUMA SUM B SUM B/SUM A = Biotic Index ScoreSUM B/SUM A = Biotic Index Score

11 Biotic Indices More tricky: Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair, Poor, Very PoorMore tricky: Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair, Poor, Very Poor Weighted average: Each individual is counted (rather than just counting types)Weighted average: Each individual is counted (rather than just counting types) Tolerance values 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10Tolerance values 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 If 100 organisms in sample…If 100 organisms in sample… Number of inverts in family * tolerance 1*9=9 10*8=80 16*7=112 14*6=84 5*5= 25 39*4=156 5*3=15 10*2= Answer: 501/100 = 5.01Answer: 501/100 = 5.01 Gives specific types of macroinvertebrates individual credit for being in the streamGives specific types of macroinvertebrates individual credit for being in the stream

12 Diversity of Families of Aquatic Insects in Wisconsin Generally find 10 OrdersGenerally find 10 Orders Approximately 89 FamiliesApproximately 89 Families riffle beetlewater penny

13 Order Common Name Number of Families DipteraFlies19 TrichopteraCaddisflies14 EphemeropteraMayflies13 ColeopteraBeetles11 Hemiptera True Bugs 11 Odonata Dragonflies and Damselflies 9 PlecopteraStoneflies8 Megaloptera Fishflies, Hellgrammites, and Alderflies 2 Lepidoptera Aquatic Moths 1 NeuropteraSpongflies1

14 What are tolerances, feeding strategies, and presence of different families in Wisconsin streams like?

15 Mayflies use abdominal gills to obtain oxygen FamilyTolerance Feeding Guild BaetidaeModerateCollector/Scraper BaetiscidaeLowCollector CaenidaeHighCollector/Scraper EphemerellidaeLowCollector EphemeridaeModerateCollector HeptageniidaeModerateScraper IsonychiidaeLowFilterer LeptophlebidaeLowCollector MetretopidaeLowPredator/Collector PolymitarcyidaeLowCollector/Filterer PotamanthidaeModerateCollector/Filterer SiphlonuridaeHighCollector Page 23

16 Representative Mayflies flathead mayflyarmored mayfly prong gill mayfly adultHexagenia

17 Dragonflies obtain oxygen through soft tissue between plates; Damselflies use leaf-like abdominal gills FamilyTolerance Feeding Guild Damselflies CalopterygidaeModeratePredator CoenagrionidaeHighPredator LestidaeHighPredator Dragonflies AeshnidaeLowPredator CordulegastridaeLowPredator GomphidaeLowPredator LibellulidaeHighPredator Page 23

18 Representative Dragonflies & Damselflies broadwing damselfly adult darner dragonfly adult darner dragonfly larva broadwing damselfly larva

19 Stoneflies use thoracic gills to obtain oxygen FamilyTolerance Feeding Guild CapniidaeLowShredder ChloroperlidaeLowPredator LeuctridaeLowShredder NemouridaeLowShredder PerlidaeLowPredator PerlodidaeLowPredator PternarcyidaeLowShredder TaeniopterygidaeLowShredder

20 Representative Stoneflies common stoneflyperlodid stonefly

21 True bugs may use atmospheric oxygen or may use hair-like or tube-like modifications on their abdomens FamilyTolerance Feeding Guild BelostomatidaeHighPredator CorixidaeHighCollector Gelastocoridae????Predator Gerridae????Predator Hebridae????Predator Hydromedtridae????Predator Mesoveliidae????Predator NaucoridaeModeratePredator NepidaeHighPredator Notonectidae????Predator Pleidae????Predator Salididae????Predator VeliidaeModeratePredator

22 Representative True Bugs water strider water scorpionback swimmer giant water bug

23 Dobsonflies, fishflies, hellgrammites, and alderflies obtain oxygen through diffusion across soft tissue FamilyTolerance Feeding Guild Corydalidae????Predator SialidaeModeratePredator

24 Spongillaflies obtain oxygen through diffusion across soft tissue FamilyTolerance Feeding Guild Sisyridae????Predator

25 Representative Hellgrammites or Alderflies (Top) & Spongillaflies (Bottom) Alderfly larva hellgrammite spongillaflyadult alderfly

26 Caddisflies obtain oxygen through diffusion across soft tissues and sometimes with gills and pumping water through case FamilyTolerance Feeding Guild BrachycentridaeLow Collectors/Filterer/ Shredder GlossosomatidaeLowScraper HelicopsychidaeLowScraper HydropsychidaeModerateCollector/Filterer HydroptilidaeModerateScraper LepidostomatidaeLowShredder LeptoceridaeModerateCollector/Shredder LimnephilidaeModerateShredder

27 Caddisflies obtain oxygen through diffusion across soft tissues and sometimes with gills and pumping water through case FamilyTolerance Feeding Guild MolannidaeHighScraper/Collector OdontoceridaeLowScraper PhilopotamidaeLowCollector/Filterer PhryganeidaeModeratePredator/Herbivore PolycentropodidaeHigh Collector/Filterer/ Predator PsychomyiidaeLowCollector RhyacophillidaeLowPredator SericostomatidaeLowShredder UenoidaeLowScraper

28 Representative Caddisflies net spinning caddisfly humpless casemaker caddisflysaddlecase maker caddisfly

29 Aquatic moths obtain oxygen through diffusion across soft tissue FamilyTolerance Feeding Guild PyralidaeModerateShredder

30 Beetles obtain oxygen through diffusion across soft tissues and from the atmosphere through modified hairs and plate-like wings FamilyTolerance Feeding Guild DryopidaeModerateScraper DytiscidaeModeratePredator ElmidaeModerateScraper GyrinidaeModeratePredator HaliplidaeHighShredder HydrophilidaeModeratePredator/Collector PsephenidaeModerateScraper ScirtidaeHigh Scraper/Shredder/ Collector

31 Representative Beetles Riffle beetle adult

32 Flies obtain oxygen through diffusion across soft tissues including abdominal gills and atmospheric oxygen through breathing tubes FamilyTolerance Feeding Guild AthericidaeLowPredator BlepharicidaeLowScraper CeratopogonidaeModeratePredator ChaoboridaeHighPredator ChironomidaeModerate-High All guilds CulicidaeHighCollector/Filterer DixidaeLowCollector DolichopodidaeModeratePredator EmpididaeModeratePredator EphydridaeModerate

33 Flies obtain oxygen through diffusion across soft tissues including abdominal gills and atmospheric oxygen through breathing tubes FamilyTolerance Feeding Guild MuscidaeModeratePredator PsychodidaeHighCollector PtychopteridaeHighCollector SciomyzidaeModeratePredator SimuliidaeModerateFilterer StratomyidaeHighCollector SyriphidaeHighCollector TabanidaeModeratePredator TipulidaeLow Shredder/Predator/ Collector

34 Representative Flies midge larva cranefly larva midge adult

35 Long term sampling

36 Biotic Indices aren’t the only solution Diversity indicesDiversity indices Richness (# species)Richness (# species) Feeding guildsFeeding guilds Don’t forget to think about scale…Don’t forget to think about scale…

37 Hours Days Weeks Months Years Decades Centuries MillimetersMeters KilometersSq. Kilometers Individual Organism, Particle or Grain Population/Community Microhabitat Community/Ecosystem Pool-Riffle Sequence Ecosystem Reach Ecosystem/Biome Watershed Figure 2. Scale of Sampling and Analysis in Streams

38 Thought Question: What spatial and temporal scale would you choose to sample to determine changes in populations (number of individuals of the same species in a given area)?


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