Water, water, everywhere… http://water.usgs.gov/edu/earthwhere water.html About 71 percent of the Earth's surface is water- covered, and the oceans hold about 96.5 percent of all Earth's water.
More than two billion people in other countries do not have a safe water source.
Sources of Water Surface - fresh water in creeks, rivers and lakes Groundwater - underground water stored in aquifers within rock and clay Water also exists in the air as water vapor, in icecaps and glaciers, and even in you and your dog. Sources of Pollution Industrial waste Sewage Chemical fertilizers Insecticides Heated water, from the cooling of power generators
Nonpoint Source Pollution * * Origin of the pollution cannot be easily identified Rainfall can create runoff that carries nonpoint source pollutants from: –pesticides and fertilizers from lawns –animal and hazardous waste from pastures and dumping grounds –oils from streets and parking lots Over 1/2 of all water pollution originates from nonpoint sources
Common Stonefly Nymph Stoneflies are not tolerant to low levels of dissolved oxygen and therefore prefer cold, swift-moving streams. The streamlined, flattened bodies of stonefly nymphs enable them to move about the rocky streambed in rapid currents.
Roach-like Stonefly Nymph Roach-like stonefly nymphs consume living and decaying plant material and are often found among leaf packs in mountain streams.
Slender Winter Stonefly Nymph Habitat ranges from small springs to medium-sized streams. Nymphs are often found among decaying leaves on which they feed.
Brush-Legged Mayfly Nymph The conspicuous hairs growing on the inner front legs are used for filtering food particles from the water.
Flat-headed Mayfly Nymph Flat-headed mayfly nymphs are common in a variety of aquatic habitats. Stream species are often found clinging to rocks where they graze on algae and other organic material associated with the stream bottom.
Burrowing Mayfly Nymph Nymphs burrow in silt or sand in rivers, streams, lakes and ponds. Most species are thought to feed on organic particles associated with the substrate.
Net-Spinning Caddisfly Larvae Net-spinning caddisfly larvae are widespread and may be abundant in good quality streams. As their name suggests, net-spinners construct a silken mesh net which they use to filter organic particles from the water column.
Finger-net Caddis Larva As their name implies, finger-net caddis larvae spin a tube-like net with which they filter animal and plant material from the water.
Case-Making Caddisfly Larva Case-making caddisfly larvae build distinctive cases made of sticks, rocks, sand, plant material and/or other debris.
Free-Living Caddisfly Larva Found in cool, clean streams. Most species are active predators.
Dobsonfly Larva Handle hellgrammites carefully, larger individuals may deliver a painful pinch! Feed on other aquatic insects. Hellgrammites are usually found on the underside of large rocks in cool, slow-moving streams.
Water Penny Water pennies prefer cold, fast-moving streams. Their smooth, flattened bodies enable them to resist the pull of the current. Water pennies are usually found on smooth rocks where they graze on attached algae.
Riffle Beetles Riffle beetles walk slowly underwater, but they do not swim on the surface.
Gilled Snail Shell usually opens on right. Shell opening covered by a thin plate, the operculum. Lives in marine, freshwater, and in terrestrial environments. The gilled snail has gills and breathes dissolved oxygen in the water.
Dragonfly Nymph Prefer cool still water, often found among vegetation and leaf packs or burrowed in sediment. Can be readily distinguished from other species by a large jaw which is modified for grasping and covers the underside of the head.
Damselfly Nymph Underside of head covered by a large jaw which is modified for grasping.
Watersnipe Fly Larva Widespread in well oxygenated streams and rivers. Some species burrow in soft sediments.
Alderfly Larva Abundant in streams that are heavily impacted by acid mine drainage. Tolerant to a broad variety of toxic metals.
Cranefly Larva Most species are generally bottom dwellers, and many can be found among algal growths, leaf packs, and woody debris.
Whirligig Beetle Larva Whirligig beetle larvae are found in riffles, undercut banks, and in vegetation.
Predaceous Diving Beetle Larva Larvae are voracious predators consuming a variety of small aquatic animals, including fish.
Crawling Water Beetle Larva Many species have conspicuous filaments covering the abdomen. Larvae are omnivorous and are usually found among aquatic vegetation and detritus.
Skuds Found in shallow freshwater springs, streams, lakes and ponds. Most species feed on detritus. Scuds are an important food source for many fishes.
Sowbugs Seven pairs of legs, the first two are modified for grasping. Found in shallow freshwater on rocks or detritus.
Crayfish Resembles a small lobster. Crayfish are omnivores, eating both plants and animals. Crayfish are usually active only at night. During the day they hide in burrows or under rocks.
Midge Larva Frequently found in bottom sediments of lakes, streams, and ponds where they feed on deposited organic material.
Blackfly Larva Blackfly larvae prefer cold running water and are usually found attached by the end of their abdomens to rocks, woody debris, or vegetation in the currents of rivers and streams.
Pouch Snail The pouch snail’s shell opens to the left. A presence of a fleshy “foot” indicates the snail is alive.
Planorbid Snail The planorbid snail has a shell that is hard and coiled in one plane. They are generally found in slower moving waters such as runs.
Leech Leeches usually avoid light by hiding under rocks or among aquatic vegetation or detritus. Silty substrates are unsuitable for leeches because they cannot attach properly. Common in warm lakes, ponds, streams, and marshes.
Aquatic Worm Tolerant of low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Found in silty substrates and among debris or detritus in ponds, lakes, streams and rivers. Dense populations of Tubificids can often be found in organically polluted rivers.
Water Parameters Temperature pH AlkalinityDissolved oxygen Nitrates Phosphates Turbidity
Why is temperature important? Temperature is important because it directly affects the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water
Temperature Cold water holds more oxygen Photosynthesis increases with temperature (as more plants grow more die, decomposers eat them and use O 2, fish then need more O 2 ) Humans cause thermal pollution with factory runoff
Why is pH important? pH affects all enzymatic reactions cell function is affected by pH acidotic conditions tend to reduce the excitability of cells alkalotic conditions tend to increase the excitability of cells
pH pH is a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is pH is defined as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen concentration This means the increase or decrease of one unit of pH is to the power of 10 Therefore, the pH change of one whole number is a large change
pH Neutral water has a pH of 7 Water with a pH less than 7 is acidic Water with a pH greater than 7 is basic pH is affected by rain, geology and unnatural disturbances
pH ranges that support life acid neutral basic 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 bacteria 1.0................................................................................................13.0 plants (algae) 6.5............................................12.0 carp, suckers, catfish 6.0.................9.0 snails, clams, mussels 7.0.........9.0 trout, most insects 6.5....7.5
How is pH measured? pH Pen Meter- you can measure a sample’s pH (or relative acidity or alkalinity) and temperature using just one hand!
Why is dissolved oxygen important? Availability of oxygen essential for an organism’s survival Oxygen is needed to generate cellular energy (ATP)
Dissolved Oxygen Oxygen is essential to aquatic life The colder the water the more oxygen it can hold Oxygen is added to water in two ways: –directly from the air –as a result of photosynthesis
Dissolved Oxygen Is essential for fish and other aquatic life Is affected by temperature Is affected by excessive plant growth and decay of organic material Needs to be at least 4 ppm
How is dissolved oxygen measured? Dissolved Oxygen Meter-Allows students to determine water quality for a variety of real-life applications
Why is nitrate nitrogen important? Plants require nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon for growth If excess nitrogen is present, excess plant growth occurs; result is lowered oxygen levels
Nitrogen effects algae growth Plankton - “free floating” algae are found in streams, ponds, and lakes Periphyton - “attached” algae are found on rocks and submerged logs Algae found in moderate amounts are indicators of good water quality Excess algae or no algae are indicators of poor water quality
Nitrates Nitrates are plant nutrients that are found in fertilizers Plants need a greater amount of nitrate than they do phosphate Nitrates from urban runoff contribute to an overabundance of plant growth When aquatic plants die and decay, the oxygen level in water is reduced
How is nitrate nitrogen measured? Nitrate Electrode-The Nitrate Ion-Selective Electrode (ISE) can be used to measure the concentration of Nitrate (NO 3 - ) in aqueous samples.
Why are phosphates important? Too much phosphate in a lake can cause excessive plant growth This leads to a drop in oxygen levels as plants die; organism that consume dead plants use O 2 A drop in oxygen levels kills fish
Phosphates Phosphates are chemical compounds in detergents, fertilizers, and human and animal wastes Phosphorous levels can rise sharply due to point and nonpoint source pollution Phosphates are not always removed by sewage treatment plants
Turbidity Turbidity is a measure of water clarity how much the material suspended in water decreases the passage of light through the water. Suspended materials include soil particles (clay, silt, and sand), algae, plankton, microbes, and other substances. Higher turbidity increases water temperatures because suspended particles absorb more heat. This, in turn, reduces the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) because warm water holds less DO.
How is Turbidity Measured? Turbidity Sensor-measure the turbidity of freshwater or seawater samples using this sensor. The Turbidity Sensor measures turbidity in NTU (the standard unit used by most water collection agencies and organizations).
What is a riparian area? Area within the channel but also land that is flooded outside the channel --Flooded 2 out of 3 years-- --Flooded 1 out of 100 years--
What is a buffer? Buffer “to lesson the shock” & “something that separates two items”—Webster Dictionary Vegetation that separates a field, a managed forest, or an urban development from a stream, lake, etc and reduces the impact of the land management on water quality
What is a buffer? Separates stream from other landusesReduces impact of management practices on stream
What is a buffer? Separates stream from other landuses Reduces impact of management practices on stream
What is the purpose of a riparian buffer? Wildlife Habitat Filter Strip Food for Aquatic Organisms Moderates Stream Temperature
Purpose: Filter Strip Remove nutrients, sediment, chemicals from water before it reaches the stream
Purpose: Filter Strip Filters Nutrients and Sediment from Surface Water STREAM BEDROCK RIPARIAN BUFFER CROPS Grass Subsoil/Bedrock Water Table
Purpose: Filter Strip Nutrient and Chemical Uptake Trees and grass can absorbs nutrients & contaminates Long-term storage in trees Important uptake for phosphorus and nitrogen
Purpose: Riparian Protection Vegetation stabilizes bank maintains stream depth and width Bank Stabilization
Purpose: Riparian Protection Removal of vegetation from banks increases sediment in stream and width of stream Bank Stabilization
Purpose: Modification of Stream Climate Removal of vegetation can increase maximum water temperatures 12 o F. Retention buffer alters temperature <2 o F Shading of Stream Reduces Temperature Corbett et al. 1978
Purpose: Modification of Stream Climate- - Aquatic Organism Water Temperature (F) Solubility of O 2 (mg/L) 4112.8 5011.3 689.0 778.2
Purpose: Modification of Stream Climate- - Aquatic Organism Warm water fish (smallmouth bass, crappie etc.) need temperatures from 65-85 o F --DO needs Growth of juvenile smallmouth bass decline at temperatures>86 o F Growth of mature smallmouth bass decline at temperatures >88.7 o F Cold water fish (trout) need temperatures from 45-65 o F -- high DO needs.
Purpose: Aquatic Organism Habitat Food and Energy for Macroinvertebrates Leaves and other organic matter source of food for macroinvertebrates: 1)Shredders 2)Filter feeders
Purpose: Aquatic Organism Habitat Large Woody Debris Macroinvertebrates cling to large woody debris for protection and stability
Purpose: Aquatic Organism Habitat Large Woody Debris Macroinvertebrates to cling to large woody debris for protection and stability Provides diversity in bed structure and stream flow