Presentation on theme: "General Turf Insects – Stem and Thatch Pests David J. Shetlar, Ph.D. The “BugDoc” The Ohio State University, OARDC & OSU Extension Columbus, OH John Royals."— Presentation transcript:
General Turf Insects – Stem and Thatch Pests David J. Shetlar, Ph.D. The “BugDoc” The Ohio State University, OARDC & OSU Extension Columbus, OH John Royals CPCC
Chinch Bugs All similar in appearance; adults black with white, ca. 3 mm in length; each folded-back wing has a black spot on costal margin with conspicuous Y extending towards head Brachypterous adults predominate Nymphs first two instars bright red with white band on anterior abdomen Orange in third instar (wing pads appear) Brown in fourth instar (wings to abdomen region) Black in fifth instar (wings to abdomen region)
Chinch Bugs Damage from sucking on plant juices from crown and stems Aggregations of chinch bugs cause localized injury which slowly coalesces to larger patches Symptoms include yellowing dwarfing, browning, death Prefer sunny locations and sandy soils
Hairy Chinch Bug Adults over winter in thatch, tall grasses near edges and plant debris; In spring adults crawl or fly to host plants, feed and mate Females lay eggs in leaf sheaths and crown areas Nymphs found by mid-summer, adults in late summer Only adults can survive over wintering One or two generations per year
Southern Chinch Bug Adults over winter in thatch, tall grasses near edges and plant debris; In early spring adults crawl or fly to host plants, feed and mate Female lays eggs in crevices of grass nodes and at junction of stems and blades Four or seven generations per year
BillBugs Billbugs are weevils of many species that feed on the crowns of many grasses and grass crops Bluegrass Billbug Hunting Billbug
Bluegrass Billbug Pest of home lawns with cool-season grasses, particularly bluegrass
Hunting Billbug Pest of warm-season grasses in the southeast, particularly zoysia and bermuda Whereas turf damaged by white grubs may be spongy underneath, turf damaged by billbugs is firm underneath In spring, adult bullbugs come out of their over wintering sites (ditch banks, litter, etc) Adults feed on the grass stems by chewing into the center of the stems
Hunting Billbug After this period of feeding, females deposit their eggs into the stems The young larvae start feeding in the stems, then the crowns By the critical period of mid summer, when the grass is under stress, the larvae are in their ultimate third instar where they do the most damage feeding on the crown and roots Stems can easily be pulled off by hand with a little tug test Frass can often be seen in the area of heavy feeding
Hunting Billbug Damage first appears as wilting that does not respond to watering, then spotty brown patches, particularly along paved areas In late summer pupation occurs and adults emerge again in the fall before seeking a place to hibernate 1- year life cycle
Hunting Billbug The best stage to detect the insect is the adult stage during there spring migrations Adults can be flushed from the grass with a detergent flush You must actively search for larvae in the root/crown areas
Annual Bluegrass Weevil Listronotus (=Hyperodes) maculicollis This weevil was included in the genus Hyperodes for many years and many still refer to this pest as the “Hyperodes weevil.”
H. D. Niemczyk Annual bluegrass weevil (left to right): adult, pupa, annual bluegrass stem, larva.
Annual Bluegrass Weevil Distribution
H. D. Niemczyk Annual bluegrass weevils commonly kill Poa annua at the time that it may normally die (the true annual forms) or go into summer dormancy.
H. D. Niemczyk Early damage from annual bluegrass weevils can look like disease or other malady.
H. D. Niemczyk Close up of annual bluegrass weevil damage to Poa annua on green.
H. Tashiro Annual bluegrass weevil larvae feed at the crown, causing the top portion of the plants to die.
Two Lined Spittlebug Eastern US, mostly warm season grasses and ryegrass Spittle masses in grass Localized wilting Adults are pest of hollies