Presentation on theme: "Plankton What is Plankton? Animals and plants that either float passively in the water, or possess such limited powers of swimming that they are carried."— Presentation transcript:
What is Plankton? Animals and plants that either float passively in the water, or possess such limited powers of swimming that they are carried from place to place by the currents.
Where does the word “plankton” come from? The word plankton comes from the Greek word planktos, which means ‘wandering’ or ‘drifting’.
Where are plankton found? Plankton dominates the well-lit surface layers of the world's oceans.
Types of Plankton Phytoplankton- microscopic plants and bacteria. Zooplankton- microscopic animals
Phytoplankton Carry out photosynthesis. Produce 80% of the Earth’s oxygen and % of the organic matter. Why must they live in the photic zone?
Can undergo rapid population growth or “algae blooms” when water temperatures rise in the presence of excess nutrients. During a bloom most phytoplankton dies, sinks to bottom and decomposes.
This depletes the bottom waters of dissolved oxygen which is necessary for the survival of other organisms.
Plankton Bloom Picture taken by astronauts from the International Space Station. Location: the Capricorn Channel off the Queensland coast of Australia. Trichodesmium -- photosynthetic cyanobacteria, also called "sea saw dust "
Impact of Ozone on Phytoplankton Produce more oxygen than all plant life on earth and are vital in maintaining the earth’s atmosphere. They are also the organisms most likely to be affected by global warming and climate change. Scientists around the world are concerned that harmful rays from the sun could pass through the hole in the ozone layer and kill phytoplankton, which live mostly in the upper layers of the ocean.
Diatoms Single-celled yellow green algae. Have a cell wall. Cell wall contains silica, a glass-like substance. Come in lots of shapes and sizes Intricate lines and etchings
Word “diatom” means cut in two because its cell wall is made of 2 parts one fitting over the other. Kind of like a petri dish!!!
Diatoms Probably the single most important food source in the ocean!!!! YUMMMY!!! Eaten by small plankton and by larger oysters and clams.
Dinoflagellates Propel themselves using 2 flagella Can swim like simple animals Photosynthesize like plants
2 Species: Gonyaulax & Gymnodinium responsible for Red tides
What is a Red Tide? Plankton-rich water. Responsible for fish mortality and paralytic shellfish poisoning.
Zooplankton Floating or weakly swimming animals that rely on water currents to move any great distance. –Microzooplankton (< 200 microns) in size –Mesozooplankton (200 microns- 2 mm) –Macrozooplankton (> 2 mm)
Classified according to size Smallest Largest Nannoplankton (Ex. Protozoans) Microplankton (Ex. Primarily eggs and larvae, usually of invertebrates). Macroplankton (Ex. Copepods) Megaplankton (Ex. Portuguese Man of War)
Camouflage Zooplankton are the favorite food of a great many marine animals so camouflaging themselves is a very important survival strategy. Developing effective camouflage when you live in clear, blue water is no easy matter. The best solution and the one most often used by members of the zooplankton is to be as transparent as possible or, in the case of many surface floating jellyfishes, blue.
There are two major types of zooplankton: 1) Those that spend their entire lives as part of the plankton (called HOLOPLANKTON) 2)Those that only spend a larval or reproductive stage as part of the plankton (called MEROPLANKTON).
Holoplankton Blue Sea Slug Adapted for life floating upside down in the sea and is often found with the beautiful blue jellyfish Porpita.
Blue Sea Slugs feed almost exclusively on the tentacles of 'Bluebottles'. Interestingly, the nematocysts (stinging cells) on these tentacles pass through the Blue Sea Slug intact. The slug can then use these stinging cells in its own defense.
Holoplankton A snail with a thin fragile shell containing only a heart and gills. It swims upside down. Can eat prey as large as itself with its toothy tongue (radula). Heteropod Atlanta peronii
Polychaete Worm or bristle worm. Most are mesoplanktonic.
Portuguese Man of War Also called bluebottle. They are a colony of polyps. They feed using their long tentacles on surface plankton.
Meroplankton Meroplankton spend only the larval or early stages of their life as part of the plankton and spend their adult lives on the reef.
Meroplankton Many meroplankton bear little resemblance to the adults that they will become.
Meroplankton While living in the plankton, meroplankton either feed on other members of the plankton, or they live off the yolk they have retained from the egg they hatched from.
Meroplankton Larvae spend varying amounts of time in the plankton, from minutes to over a year. However, just how long these tiny animals can be considered truly planktonic is under some debate.
Meroplankton- Examples sea urchins Starfish sea squirts most of the sea snails and slugs crabs Lobsters Octopus marine worms most reef fishes.
Lobster Larvae Meroplankton
Anemone Larva & Adult
Sea Cucumber Larva & Adult
Brittle Star Larvae & Adult
Cone Shell Larvae & Adult
Octopus Larvae & Adult
Starfish Larvae & Adult
Meroplankton Meroplankton that sinks to the bottom of the ocean and lives there is called BENTHOS. Nearly 16% of all animal species are benthic.
There are 3 types: INFAUNA- animals that live in the bottom like clams and worms EPIFAUNA- animals on the bottom surface like crabs, coral and starfish EPIFLORA- plants that live on the bottom. Epidermis ( epi- means on the surface)
How long are they larvae? Larvae spend varying amounts of time in the plankton, from minutes to over a year. However, just how long these tiny animals can be considered truly planktonic is under some debate. Scientists in recent years have discovered that many of these tiny animals in the plankton quickly become very good swimmers capable of incredible speed and endurance.
Marine Protozoa Protozoan = one celled organism. Usually microscopic Most live in water Some are plankton, others benthic Three groups: Sarcodinians, ciliates, flagellates.
Sarcodina Word “sarcodina” means creeping flesh. Describes how they move. Contract and expand projections of their bodies called pseudopodia or “false feet.” 2 groups: forams & radiolarians
Facts about Forams Shell made of Calcium carbonate. Pseudopodia project out through holes in shell. Feed on diatoms & other protozoans. Secrete digestive juices onto their food to dissolve it!!! Waste expelled through body surface.
Globigerina Planktonic Large amount of these shells have been deposited in sediment. Studied to reveal information about climate in past geological eras.
Archaias angulatus Turtle grass foram
Archaias compressus Button foram
Radiolarians Mostly planktonic Perforated outer skeleton of silica. Pseudopodia extend through holes as long, sticky filaments. Skeleton does NOT dissolve at great depths like the Forams.
Radiolarians Studied by micro paleontologists
Radiolarian Art Artist: Barbara West Canada Artist: Eva Bjerke (Sweden)
Ciliates Covered with hair like cilia Cilia used in eating, locomotion, respiration. Most are solitary and free swimming. Some are attached and colonial. Common among sand grains (eat plant cells and bacteria!)
Tintinnids Bell animals Planktonic ciliates Common in open ocean Ring of cilia surround mouth (locomotion & catching food). Hard shell of protein.
Phylum Mastigophora Flagellates Propelled by a flagella Whip like Choanoflagellates Colonial, live attached to bottom. Collar filters particles from the water.
The most abundant members of the zooplankton, both in species and total numbers are the crustaceans. Crustaceans include lobsters, crabs, prawns, pill bugs, krill, barnacles, water fleas, brine shrimp (sea monkeys) and copepods.