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Some Major Invasive Insects Established on Vegetables in North Carolina Dr. Kenneth A. Sorensen Extension Entomologist N. C. State University Raleigh,

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Presentation on theme: "Some Major Invasive Insects Established on Vegetables in North Carolina Dr. Kenneth A. Sorensen Extension Entomologist N. C. State University Raleigh,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Some Major Invasive Insects Established on Vegetables in North Carolina Dr. Kenneth A. Sorensen Extension Entomologist N. C. State University Raleigh, N. C What is an Invasive Species? An "invasive species" is defined as a species that is 1) non-native (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration and 2) whose introduction causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health. (Executive Order 13112). NameOrigin Date & Location of Introduction Distribution Detection & Monitoring Containment & Management European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) Native of Europe & Asia Although first found near Boston, Mass. in 1917, probably arrived in North America several years earlier in shipments of broomcorn from Italy or Hungary. Ga. to Maine & west to Mont., Colo., & Okla. Sex pheromone traps 2 strains – Bollworm trap East - (NY strain) West – (Iowa strain) Also in Blacklight insect traps Parasites & Predators Prevent movement & spread to Fla., La., Tex. & Calif. On hosts. Trapping Imported Cabbageworm Pieris rapae (Linnaeus) Native of Europe First observed in North America in 1860 at Quebec City, Canada. Arrived in Mass. about 1869, & spread over all the U.S. east of the Mississippi River by Throughout North America although few cabbageworms reportedly survive the winter in most of Canada Day flier. Many hosts. Present everywhere but easy to control & manage. Observations of butterfly flight. Directed sprays of most insecticides are effective. Beet Armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) Native to the OrientFirst recorded in Calif. in Throughout the Gulf states, west to the Pacific Coast, & north to Kans. & Nebr. Sex pheromone trap (Wing) Flights from South Signal plant is pigweed. Parasites & predators Monitor flights. Rotate classes of insecticides to prevent resistance. Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) Native of Europe First observed in North America in 1854, in Ill., but had spread to Fla. & the Rocky Mountains by Now recorded everywhere that cabbage is grown in North America Sex pheromone traps (Wing & water pan traps) Several generations Parasites & predators Monitor flights. Rotate chemistry classes as resistance occurs within 3 generations. Sweetpotato Weevil Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers) Believed to be native to Asia; first discovered in India in 1792 West Indies in 1875 near New Orleans, LA., then in Fla. in 1878, in Tex. in 1890, in Miss. and Ga. in 1917, in Ala. in 1918, in Okla. in 1922, in S. C. in 1966, in Ark. in 1982, in Tenn. in 1983, in Calif. in 1993, & in N. C. in 1967 & Throughout the coastal plain of the Southeast from NC to Tex. Also found in Hawaii & Puerto Rico, & widely around the world in tropical regions. Sex pheromone traps (Bollweevil) Trap collections trigger timely foliar sprays Sanitation Monitor movement of plants. Traps placed in every field, plant bed & storage house. Monitor movement of sweetpotato roots & plants. Vegetable Weevil Listroderes difficilis Germar Native of South America First reported in the U.S. in 1922 Gulf and southern states, Okla., Ariz., Calif. & throughout N.C. but more common in the southern Coastal Plain Monitor presence Rotation of plants Timely sprays for adults Presence on plants, buds or fruit. Insecticides Whitefringed Beetle Graphognathus spp. Native of South America First reported in 1936 as pests of peanuts in Fla. 385 hosts Fla. to N. J. & west to Mo. & eastern Tex. Piedmont & eastern NC Monitor adults in July/August. Use corn soil baits in Feb-April Field records Rotation long term Notches in host leaves Previous history Restrict plant movement with soil Timely sprays for adults Asparagus Beetle Crioceris asparagi (Linnaeus) Native of Europe First found injuring asparagus on Long Island in Northeastern fourth of the U.S., from Mo. eastward & from Tenn. & N. C. north into Canada; also much of Calif., Colo., & Ore. All stages on foliage Movement on plants Allow field borders to go to ferns & spray Isolate crown field production Treat crown fields Sell pest free crowns Cabbage Maggot Delia radicum (Linnaeus) Native of Europe Probably imported in the early 1800's in ships' ballast with a number of mustard-like weeds (which serve as wild hosts) Serious pest in the northern U. S. & Canada. In N.C. from practically all mountain counties west of a line from Polk County to Surry County; usually does not occur below 3,000 ft. elevation. Field history. Problem in spring in elevations above 1000 feet. Adults active when forsythia blooms. Movement on plants. Inspection Purchase and grow plants in lower elevations and in the Southeast Asparagus Aphid Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordvilko) Native to eastern Europe and the Mediterranean area First infestation in North America was noticed in N.Y. in Has been reported in N. J., Del., R.I., Md., Pa., Va., N.C., Wash., Mich. & Ore. Bonsai effect in plant production. Foliar sprays in September fern growth. Parasites and predators Movement on crowns. Spray crown production fields in fall. Sweetpotato Weevil Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers) Sweetpotato weevil adult Sweetpotato weevil larva Whitefringed Beetle Graphognathus spp. Whitefringed beetle adult Whitefringed beetle larva Vegetable Weevil Listroderes difficilis Germar Vegetable weevil adult Photos: Clemson Univ. CE - USDA joint project Vegetable weevil larva Asparagus Beetle Crioceris asparagi (Linnaeus) Asparagus beetle adult Asparagus beetle larvae Asparagus Aphid Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordvilko) Past introductions & outbreaks of these introduced pests offer hope for dealing with future pests & better understanding their pathways of entry, their monitoring & movement, their natural enemies, & their control & management. Imported Cabbageworm Pieris rapae (Linnaeus) Imported cabbageworm larva Photo by: John L. Capinera, University of Florida Imported cabbageworm adult Photo by: James Castner, University of Florida European corn borer adult European corn borer larva European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) Beet Armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) Beet Armyworm adult a)beet armyworm larva b)armyworm eggs Cabbage Maggot Delia radicum (Linnaeus) Cabbage maggot larva Cabbage maggot adult Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) Diamondback moth adult Diamondback moth larva Quarantines, though established, have not prevented the entrance, establishment and spread of invasive species of insects. Identification of stages, their biology, natural enemies, insecticide control and management practices have been studied. However, these pests have become established. Invasive.org - The Bugwood Network - Invasivespeciesinfo.gov - Animal and Plant Health inspection Service (APHIS) - National Agricultural Pest Information System (NAPIS) - Useful Web Sites IPM NCSU - NCSU - NCSU - NCSU - Digital images of stages and damage Reference collections Leaflets Resources on colored insects Monitoring & trapping tactics Potential threat & movement Training of first detectors Implementation of management strategies Helpful Strategies and Tactics for Living with Future Insect Invaders


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