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Odonata VáVžky Rozšírenie: Európa: 128 druhov na Zemi: cca 5 300 druhov na Slovensku: 76 druhov Vážky (ODONATA)

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Presentation on theme: "Odonata VáVžky Rozšírenie: Európa: 128 druhov na Zemi: cca 5 300 druhov na Slovensku: 76 druhov Vážky (ODONATA)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Odonata VáVžky Rozšírenie: Európa: 128 druhov na Zemi: cca druhov na Slovensku: 76 druhov Vážky (ODONATA)

2 Rad:Odonata Anisozygoptera Zygoptera (damselflies) Anisoptera (dragonflies) 3 podrady Japonsko, Nepál

3 Life History Good fossil record, 250 mya – Protodonata from upper Carboniferous (325 mya) Unknown if earliest Odonata had aquatic larvae – Earliest fossil record during Lower Permian Hemimetabolous with prolarva (10 – 15 instars) Palaeopterous Adults & larva are beneficial predators Larvae exhibit conspicuous diversity of form & behavior Excellent visual acuity

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5 Larva šidlaLarva šidielka

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7 Odonata Egg Hatches within 8-30 days, or when submerged by water Some have winter diapause Some show considerable variation within clutch – Pantala flavescens, eggs from single clutch hatched over 35 days – Epitheca – even longer

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9 Odonata Oviposition In tandem or alone Tandem pairs tap water surface or perch Male may release female while flying over water Males may guard females (Libellulidae) Eggs number from 200-5,000+/female

10 Respiration Adults – via thoracic & abdominal spiracles Larvae – Zygoptera: chiefly cutaneous (via wing pads inlater instars), supplemented by caudal lamellae Anisoptera: rectal gills; also used for jet propulsion In emergencies will come to surface

11 Prolarva – 1st larval instar – unable to walk or swim, but…. – specialized for travel between oviposition site and micro-habitat for free- living larva – Doesn’t feed – Generally short lived

12 Odonata Naiad Larval stage lasts few weeks to 8 years Detect prey predominately with eyes or mechanoreceptors Prey capture facilitated by prehensile labium Found in temporary or permanent habitats – Fern bracts, tree holes, bromeliads Some are semiaquatic Feeding behavior: (1) detecting prey (2) Ejecting labium to grasp prey (3) employing mandibles to devour prey

13 Tvar tracheálnych žiaber

14 Zmeny tvaru žiaber počas ontogenézy

15 Suchozemská larva

16 Zvliekanie (ecdysis) 1

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39 LOTICKÉ BIOTOPY a./ krenál až rithrál (horské a podhorské oblasti) cenóza Cordulegaster (bidentatus, boltoni) - Ophiogomphus cecilia sprievodné druhy: Calopteryx virgo b/ potamál (nížinné úseky väčších riek) cenóza Gomphus (vulgatissimus, flavipes, simillimus) - Calopteryx splendens sprievodné druhy: Onychogomphus forcipatus, Somatochlora metallica.

40 LENITICKÉ BIOTOPY a/ horské rašeliniská, vrchoviská, plesá cenóza Agrion (hastulatum) - Leucorrhinia (dubia) - Aeshna (juncea). sprievodné druhy: Coenagrion hastulatum, Somatochlora arctica, S. alpestris, Aeshna subarctica. b/ rašeliniská a slatiny podhorského a nížinného stupňa cenóza Leucorrhinia (pectoralis, albifrons, caudalis) c/ rybníky, vodné nádrže s voľnou vodnou hladinou cenóza Erythromma (najas, viridulum) - Anax (imperator, parthenope)

41 LENITICKÉ BIOTOPY d/ eutrofné, prehrievané menšie vodné biotopy, materiálové jamy, mŕtve ramená vodné nádrže, atď. cenóza Lestes (dryas, virens, barbatus, sponsa) - Sympetrum (sanquineum, flaveolum) - Aeshna (affinis, mixta). e/ prietočné ramená väčších riek, melioračné kanály cenóza Orthetrum (cancellatum, brunneum, albistylum) - Platetrum depressum - Sympterum (vulgatum, striolatum)

42 ZYGOPTERA_Tracheálne dýchanie


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