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Controlling Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants Sheep & Goat Toolbox.

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Presentation on theme: "Controlling Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants Sheep & Goat Toolbox."— Presentation transcript:

1 Controlling Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants Sheep & Goat Toolbox

2 Prefer to browse Selective eaters Like to roam Can handle some toxins other livestock can’t Like variety GoatsSheep Prefer to graze close to the ground Like to roam Enjoy many weeds Small ruminant overview

3 Biggest concern for small ruminant producers Costly –Treatment costs –Reduced animal performance –Death Parasites have developed resistance to dewormers Parasites can be managed Introduction to parasites

4 We force them to eat close to the ground We crowd them We cause parasite resistance –Deworming too often and incorrectly We create environments where parasites thrive We don’t keep them in good enough condition We “baby” our animals –keep animals that we should cull We cause problems

5 The problem: parasites Photos courtesy of Dr. Jean Marie Luginbuhl, North Carolina State University

6 Barberpole worm –Haemonchus contortus Brown stomach worm –Telodorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta Bankrupt worm –Trichostrongylus colubriformis Coccidia –Eimera sp. Picture from Diagram from Primary parasites

7 Parasite larvae ingested Adults make residence in the body Adults lay eggs Eggs passed in feces Eggs hatch and larvae crawl up blades of grass Animals ingest larvae (repeat cycle) Diagram from Parasite life cycle

8 Practically inevitable Should be managed so that parasitism is not evident Young animals most affected Does/ewes affected last month of pregnancy & around kidding/lambing Parasitism

9 Loss of condition Rough hair coat Bottle jaw Low energy Signs of parasitism

10 Pale mucous membranes –Indicates anemia Scours, diarrhea Death Signs of parasitism (cont.)

11 Parasites are becoming resistant to drugs –Particularly sheep & goats Parasites are already becoming resistant to the newest anthelmintic drugs We are running out of drugs! Anthelmintics should not be overused –Increases resistance Other methods must be used in conjunction with anthelmintics We cannot rely on drugs alone!

12 Frequent deworming –No dewormer is 100% effective, 100% of the time –Frequent deworming increases the rate resistance develops Deworming all animals, regardless of need –Increases rate of resistance –Costs more $$$$$ Under dosing –Leaves more of the strong worms Deworming and moving to a clean pasture –Only resistant worms being deposited Causes of resistance

13 Pasture management –Sanitation –Avoid over-grazing Animal management Animal selection FAMACHA© Smart Drenching Other techniques What do we do?

14 Should be the primary technique Monitor Forage Height –Research indicates that most larvae can only travel about 2 inches off the ground –Grazing close to the ground increases parasite ingestion Pictures from Pasture management

15 Stocking Rate Overstocking causes: –More worm deposits –Animals forced to graze close to manure Multi-species Grazing –Small ruminants, cows, and horses do not share the same parasites Haying –Removes & exposes larvae to the sun Pasture management

16 Immune System –Healthier animals have fewer problems –Provide good nutrition Select resistant animals –Select a resistant buck/ram –Select resistant breeds Goats: Spanish, Myotonic, Kiko, not Boer Sheep: Hair Sheep, Florida Native Cull –Animals needing more treatment –Animals depositing a lot of eggs (FEC) Picture from: ansi.okstate.edu Provided by Dr. An Peischel Animal management

17 Sanitation –Keep feeders and water free of feces –Keep areas where animals congregate as clean as possible Carefully chose, isolate, and de-worm new animals General management

18 Photo from Classifies animals based on level of anemia 1-5 scale 1-not anemic 5-anemic Treat 4’s and 5’s Sometimes 3’s FAMACHA ©

19 Must be trained by a veterinarian Keep records Cull animals repeatedly treated Treat less, save money! FAMACHA ©

20 Find out which dewormers work –Talk to your local veterinarian Weigh animals prior to deworming –Don’t under-dose Deliver dewormer over the tongue, in the back of the throat Withhold feed 12 to 24 hours prior De-worm only animals that need it! Photo from Smart Drenching

21 Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) have been proven to be an effective method of controlling H. contortus (barber pole worms) in sheep & goats COWP can be an effective component of a holistic parasite management strategy. Should not be the only method of parasite management Other techniques: copper wire

22 Purchase copper boluses –Copasure©, available in 12.5 g and 25 g boluses Obtain smaller gel capsules –Available at your local pharmacy or health food store, also available from veterinary supply at times. Repackage cattle bolus into smaller gel capsule to make 0.5g dose –Size 1 gelatin capsules filled1/3 full –Size 3 capsules filled 3/4 full Administer bolus with a pill gun designed for pets or wooden dowel with PVC pipe How to use COWP

23 How it works

24 Animals should receive no more than Four (if 0.5 or 1 g is used) or Two (if 2 or 4 g is used) Per worm season Effective in reducing abomasal (H. contortus) worms only and not intestinal worms. COWP should not be the only method used for controlling internal parasites. Copper oxide wire particles

25 Effects of tannins vary depending on type, concentration, and the animal consuming the tannins. Potential positive effects: –Increase in by-pass protein –Reduction in bloating, increased milk production –Reduction in internal parasite numbers, egg output, & hatchability. Potential negative effects: –Reduced intake and reduced digestibility, leading to a decline in animal productivity. –Negative effects are seen more often when CT concentration is high (above 55 g CT/kg DM in the forage) Other techniques: condensed tannins

26 ForageCT, g/kg of DM%DM Birdsfoot trefoil484.8 Big trefoil777.7 Sanfoin292.9 Sulla Lucerne (alfalfa) Sericea lespedeza Perennial ryegrass Chicory Crabgrass/tall fescue mixture *The standard used for analysis will affect the results. For these studies, a Quebracho standard was used. Condensed tannin (CT) content in different forage species.* (Adapted from Min and Hart, 2003 and Min et al., 2005). Other techniques: condensed tannins

27 High-tannin forage Scientifically proven to reduce parasite loads in sheep and goats. Research has shown that Sericea is effective against internal parasites when grazed or when fed in dried forms, such as hay or pellets. Condensed tannins: Sericea lespedeza

28 Garlic Nematode-trapping Fungus –Fungus traps parasite larva in the feces –Not commercially available yet Vaccines –Not available yet Other techniques

29 Parasites are the biggest problem for sheep and goat producers No technique is 100% effective Several techniques should be used Select for resistant animals Do not over-treat (causes resistance!) /in/set / Conclusion

30 See ATTRA publications at Managing Internal Parasites “Tools for Managing” series: Copper Wire Sericea Lespedeza Animal Selection Pasture Management American Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control at For more information

31 The National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT) is a nonprofit organization that helps people and communities. NCAT champions small- scale, sustainable and local solutions to reduce poverty, protect communities and promote natural resources. Since 1976, NCAT has weatherized houses, trained farmers, monitored energy use and demonstrated renewable technology. NCAT works on local and national projects that foster a healthy quality of life for everyone.


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