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© ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) biology and control Spain.

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Presentation on theme: "© ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) biology and control Spain."— Presentation transcript:

1 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) biology and control Spain MODULE C14

2 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Taxonomy and distribution Cydia pomonella (codling moth) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a key pest of apples, pears, walnuts and quinces

3 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Life cycle 1 J. Avilla The number of generations (1 – 4) depends on the photoperiod and the temperature Overwintering as last instar diapausing larva in tree trunks and soil. Pupation in late winter, early spring

4 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Life cycle 2 No. catches · tr --1 · week -1 IVVVIVIIVIIIIX Month

5 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Life cycle 3 White egg Red ring egg Black head egg Newly hatched larva Fully grown larva

6 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Damage

7 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Monitoring Delta pheromone trap Corrugated cardboard Pheromone traps attracts males, while pear ester attract a small percenage of females Useful to determine the beginning of the first flight (biofix for certain phenological models) Although the results are very dependent on the orchard, they give a certain indication of the overwintering population

8 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Control strategy Undesirable situation Desirable situationl *Annual *Plot *Broad spectrum Insecticides *Routine application *Multiannual *Area Wide Mangement *Combination of selective control measures * Decision Support Systems

9 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Control methods 1 Chemical control organophosphates, pyrethroids, abamectines, benzoylureas, benzhydrazides, neonicotinoids and macrocyclic lactones Ovicides and larvicides (neonate larva is the target instar) Use of phenological methods to time insecticide application Resistance present all over the world. It is necessary to apply an anti-resistance strategy * Use products from any one group for only one generation per year Ensure that the application technique is appropriate to obtain complete coverage of the tree canopy

10 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Control methods 2 Isomate® Checkmate® Puffer® Mating disruption

11 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Control methods 3 * Plots < 2 ha. The Area Wide Management programs, with the participation of different growers and advisors, are essential in areas where the plot size is small Regular, flat and homogenous plot Without outside sources of infestation (isolated walnut trees, fruit storehouses) Low to medium populations Optimal conditions for its use Mating disruption

12 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Control methods 3 2 dispenser per ha (Puffer) or (convetional) Distributed before the beginning of the first flight Located in the upper third of the canopy Density of dispenser duplicated in the borders of the plot Check the efficacy by visual counting of damaged fruits Combine it, if necessary, with granulosis virus and selective insecticides Application technique Mating disruption

13 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Control methods 4 Microbial control (granulosis virus, CpGV) Very effective and selective, but inactivated by temperature and solar radiation Low persistence Small safe-to-harvest interval


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