Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Pests of Orchards California red scale Grape vine moth

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Pests of Orchards California red scale Grape vine moth"— Presentation transcript:

1 Pests of Orchards California red scale Grape vine moth
Citrus leaf miner White louse scale Queensland fruit fly Phylloxera Anthracnose Lemon scab Melanose Spined citrus bug Other problems deficiencies latkins2003

2 California red scale Order- Hemiptera ( hard)
Appearance – The adult female cover circular, conical orange/red. The winged adult male cover is oval & grey. Crawlers & adults inject a toxic poison in saliva latkins2003

3 California red scale California red scale crawlers
Adult male California red scale. latkins2003

4 California red scale Damage- All of the above ground may be infested= Fruit blemishing, leaf yellowing, fall, twig & branch die back Halo effect on leaf latkins2003

5 California red scale Plants affected- Citrus,Acacias,Willows, Olives. Most widespread pest of citrus in NSW. Conditions- Prefers dry inland or coastal, dust covering plants Very troublesome pest latkins2003

6 California scale Control
Biological-Red & blue ladybird beetle larvae ( Chilocorus spp). The adult beetle lays her eggs under scale cover= larvae feed Aphytis melinus wasp lays her eggs under the scale cover of a second instar unmated female scale= hatched larvae feed, adult wasp also feed Cultural- Keep trees healthy, do not over fertilise / over-water, Control ants. They severely disrupt red scale parasites while tending red scale Avoid excessive dust build up on leaves and fruit, (eg from manure mulches, kaolin clays) latkins2003

7 Californian scale - Control
Cultural - Fine, talc-sized particles of ash from bush fires can also disrupt biological control. Washing trees to remove dust or ash particles can help solve this problem. Heavy fogs, drizzle, or rain can also help by either removing dust and ash particles or causing them to adhere to the leaf surface. Chemical- White/pest oil ( not on blossom) latkins2003

8 Citrus leaf miner Order- Lepidoptera
Appearance –usually observed when leaves are damaged by larvae tunnels and pupal stage Damage-The larvae tunnel down new shoots near tips or junctions = wilting , distortion and obvious tunnelling Plants affected Citrus Common on coast and has a major impact inland on citrus orchard industry . In early summer the newly hatched first generation larvae bore into the tips of terminal shoots and tunnel downward until they reach harder woody tissue, at this point they exit the shoot and enter another one. The tips of infested shoots soon wilt and die. A single larva may destroy two to five shoots before it matures. The mature larvae exit the shoots and drop via silken threads to the ground or the trunk of the tree, where they spin cocoons and pupate. Summer cocoons are more fragile than overwintering ones. The life cycle is repeated and the second brood larvae hatch. This generation also attacks shoots but by midsummer the new shoots begin to harden. At this time many of the partly grown larvae exit the shoots and attack the young fruit. They may tunnel to the pit or feed near the surface, producing large masses of gum mixed with sawdust-like castings (frass). Emerging larvae of later broods may bore into the soft stems of the fruit, being too small to attack the hard fruit directly. As the fruit ripens and softens it no longer produces gum when attacked and young larvae can enter it directly. Larvae that bore into the stems may tunnel down into the ripening fruit. Larvae of later broods attack the ripe fruit leaving no visual signs of infestation and it is not until the fruit is cut open that the larvae are discovered. latkins2003

9 Citrus leaf miner - Damage

10 Citrus leaf miner

11 latkins2003

12 Life cycle Damage occurs in later summer and autumn
Larvae tunnel in surface layer of new leaves Pupal chamber is formed at the end of the larval stage where the larva wraps itself in a silk casing at the edge of the leaf. Adult lays eggs along leaf margin 0.3 mm in size 14 – 17 days complete lifecycle latkins2003

13 Control Winter fertilising to promote new growth in spring
Prune off affected leaves and destroy Natural predators can control from 20 – 90% of all infestations White oil is the only recommended chemical control for home nurseries latkins2003

14 White Louse Scale latkins2003

15 White Louse Scale Generally found on trunk and lower branches first
Spread to upper twigs and leaves Generally plant has branch die back and poor vigour Control is white oil treatment latkins2003

16 latkins2003

17 latkins2003

18 Queensland fruit fly Order- Appearance Damage Plants affected CONTROL

19 latkins2003

20 latkins2003

21 latkins2003

22 latkins2003

23 latkins2003

24 Lemon scab FUNGUS Appearance/ Damage-Irregular scabby areas on fruit, sometimes leaves & twigs . Wart-like outgrowths sometimes scabbed. Severe shedding of young fruit, external quality affected Plants affected-Citrus ( mainly lemons & mandarins) latkins2003

25 latkins2003

26 Spread- Rain, wind Control- Occurs during damp weather & only on immature fruit, coastal areas. When symptoms seen it is too late to save infected fruit. Need for preventative spraying before next crop. Chemical- Apply Bordeaux (+ white oil) in spring ant half petal fall and again in late Jan/early Feb at blossoming of second crop latkins2003

27 Melanose FUNGUS Appearance/ Damage-Small Reddish to dark brown spots on leaves & fruit. Streaky if spores are washed by rain, skin of fruit may become cracked and have a ‘mud-cake’ appearance Young leaves & fruit are susceptible & usually occurs on older trees in wet warm conditions latkins2003

28 Melanose Mudcake or sandpaper symptoms of melanose on grapefruit.
Tearstaining caused by melanose spores washed down the fruit by dew or rain. latkins2003

29 Melanose Plants affected-Citrus-Washington navels,Emperor mandarins & lemons Spread- Water – dripping & splashing Control- remove & destroy infected parts,Copper oxychloride + white oil at petal fall latkins2003

30 Bronze Orange Bug Piercing and sucking mouthparts True bug Gregarious
Damage the tips of new growth and cause leaf distorton Toxic urine from adults and older nymphs (eyes and hands, sensitive skin) latkins2003

31 latkins2003

32 latkins2003

33 latkins2003

34 BoB Control Hand removal shaking and spray with high pressure water
Chemical use only white oil White oil affects most predators as well Affect new growth so prune damaged growth. latkins2003

35 Spined Citrus bug latkins2003

36 Summer fruit drop Citrus normally shed large numbers of fruitlets shortly after blossoming in the spring and at early fruit set (pea size). when warmer weather places stress on the tree. related to lack of water at, or soon after, fruit set. Root diseases and lack of nitrogen or trace elements may also be responsible. . latkins2003

37 Rind splitting Rind splitting of fruit, particularly in navels, also occurs before or near maturity as a result of climatic factors, specifically a drop in average temperatures and an increase in relative humidity at a time when the rate of fruit growth is decreasing. There is no control for the disorder.

38 Preharvest drop Preharvest drop in the autumn before fruit is fully mature is a common problem with navels and grapefruit. Some of this drop is natural, but in coastal areas fruit stung by Queensland fruit fly during the late autumn colour-change period is also very prone to drop. Some mandarin and lemon varieties will also shed fruit when damaged by the spined citrus bug. Brown spot infection in mandarins will result in fruit drop.

39 Alternate cropping (biennial bearing)
Alternate cropping (biennial bearing) is a common problem with many citrus varieties, such as Valencia orange, Wheeny grapefruit, and mandarins. Pruning or thinning of the heavy crop and early harvesting will assist in reducing the problem.

40 Second crop fruit Sometimes orange trees will produce blossoms in the autumn after a stress period, and set a second crop. This fruit is often of poor quality (thick skins and low juice content) and is susceptible to fruit fly attack. With lemon trees, however, these intermediate crops are desirable

41 Grape vine moth Order- Lepidoptera
Appearance – Adult- black moth with yellow markings & tuffs of orange hair at the tip of the abdomen. Larva – blend of green, yellow, black with red markings at sides and a red band over body at hind end. Scattered white hairs over body. latkins2003

42 Grape vine moth Damage- Larvae skeletonise leaves, defoliate to main stems Plants affected- Grapes, Fuchsias, Parthenocissus Prefers lush growth latkins2003

43 Grapevine moth control
Biological- Dipel, birds, wasps predatory shield bug Oechalia schellenbergii. Natural predators are usually effective Physical- hand pick off from leaf dersides Chemical-Only spray in severe infestation Oechalia schellenbergii. latkins2003

44 Grapevine moth control
Larva being eaten by mating shieldbug latkins2003

45 Phylloxera Order- Hemiptera
Appearance –This aphid can live below or above ground & when swelling or galls are cut open aphids =green - yellow Damage- Roots- have fleshy yellow galls on the fine roots ( may be curved in a S shape).Leaves have fleshy yellowish irregular swellings. Infected plants are weak & do not produce good crops Plants affected- stressed grape vines (which are less able to repel their attack), in heavy soils & humid environments and warm temperatures. AN EXTREMELY SERIOUS PEST OF GRAPEVINES latkins2003

46 Phylloxera latkins2003

47 Phylloxera -Damage Root-feeding stages are the most damaging, causing a loss in plant vigour, wilting and leaf yellowing. Vines may eventually die within 3-10 years. The aphids live on the surface of root galls and inside the leaf galls. latkins2003

48 Galls on infected leaves
Phylloxera -Damage Galls on infected leaves Galls on infected leaves latkins2003

49 Phylloxera -Damage The effect of phylloxera aphids feeding on the roots is to cause the vines to get progressively weaker, and they produce fewer leaves and grapes. latkins2003

50 Phylloxera control There is no chemical control & no economic means of removing it from the soil once it is established Cultural- QUARANTINE regulations, grow on resistant root stocks latkins2003

51 Anthracnose VARIOUS FUNGUS
Appearance/ Damage-Small to large, dark circular spots or sunken lesions with raised rim on leaves, stems & fruit Can occur at any stage of growth, twig die back, corky spots on fruit, fruit drop & rot latkins2003

52 Anthracnose leaf spot on watermelon leaf
Stem and pods have black fruiting bodies, “acervuli,” with black hairs, “setae. latkins2003

53 Anthracnose characterised by discrete lesions that are usually found along leaf veins. In severe cases these lesions may run together and kill the entire leaf. Young leaves may become distorted as healthy tissue continues to grow around dead areas. latkins2003

54 Anthracnose Colletotrichum acutatum latkins2003

55 Anthracnose Sunken lesions, slightly paler than the healthy tissue, are symptoms of tomato anthracnose. Black fruiting bodies are visible on this close-up of the lesion. latkins2003

56 Anthracnose Tomatoes develop sunken spots on ripe fruits, the central parts of which turn dark. latkins2003

57 Anthracnose Plants affected- Citrus, grapes, stonefruit, avocadoes etc
Spread- Water, wind, animals, tools, infected plants Control- remove & destroy infected parts, crop rotation, disease free seed, improve drainage, air circulation, watering latkins2003

58 Peach leaf curl Control- remove & destroy infected parts,Copper oxychloride before bud swell or late Winter latkins2003

Download ppt "Pests of Orchards California red scale Grape vine moth"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google