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Class JawsTetrapodAmniote eggUniform internal temperature Mammary glands Jawless fishes (Cephalaspido- morphi) No Jawed fishes (Osteichthyes) YesNo Amphibians.

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Presentation on theme: "Class JawsTetrapodAmniote eggUniform internal temperature Mammary glands Jawless fishes (Cephalaspido- morphi) No Jawed fishes (Osteichthyes) YesNo Amphibians."— Presentation transcript:

1 Class JawsTetrapodAmniote eggUniform internal temperature Mammary glands Jawless fishes (Cephalaspido- morphi) No Jawed fishes (Osteichthyes) YesNo Amphibians (Amphibia) Yes No Reptiles (Reptilia) Yes No Birds (Aves) Yes No Mammals (Mammalia) Yes

2 Class Amphibia Scaleless body Smooth or warty skin Larvae, adults distinct (exceptions)

3 Class Amphibia Larvae Gills* Herbivore/detritivores, predators Aquatic* * A few exceptions (plethodontid salamanders) Adults Lungs* Predators Aquatic or terrestrial * A few salamanders retain gills

4 Order Caudata, Family Ambystomatidae (Ambystoma tigrinum: tiger salamander) Identification: adult Tail (Caudata) Costal grooves (Ambystomatidae) Yellow spots or blotches Large (to 21 cm) / Illustration from Christoffel et al. 2001

5 Ambystoma tigrinum: tiger salamander Identification: larva External gills Legs absent (early) or present (late)

6 Ambystoma tigrinum: tiger salamander Habitat Adults near/in ponds, or underground Larvae – ponds Food Invertebrates, salamanders (adults and larvae)

7 Ambystoma tigrinum: tiger salamander Other Egg mass in spring Migrations precede breeding

8 Order Anura (frogs and toads) Smooth or warty skin Adult lacks tail (hops) Larva with internal gills (legs during metamorphosis)

9 Family Bufonidae (Bufo americanus: American toad) Identification: adult Paratoid glands Warty skin Call a long trill Illustration from Christoffel et al. 2001

10 Bufo americanus: American toad Identification: larva Dark color Eyes dorsal Small (to 2.4 cm)

11 Bufo americanus: American toad Habitat Adults - ponds or dry areas Larvae - ponds Food Adults - invertebrates Larvae - algivores/detritivores

12 Bufo americanus: American toad Other Eggs in strings Antipredator defenses - toxin (paratoid glands), urinating, puffing (garter snakes)

13 Order Anura, Family Hylidae (Pseudacris triseriata: western chorus frog) Identification: adult Stripes (variable, broken) Smooth skin Small (to 3.9 cm) Call – finger along comb

14 Pseudacris triseriata: western chorus frog Identification: larva Eyes lateral Tail fin rises above body Little pigment on fin Dorsal tail musculature dark To 3.7 cm long Illustration from Conant and Collins 1991

15 Habitat Adults - wetland margins, ditches Larvae - ephemeral to permanent wetlands Food Adults - small invertebrates Larvae - algae Pseudacris triseriata: western chorus frog

16 Other Very common, tolerates disturbance Early breeder (March) Larvae develop quickly (2-2.5 months) Pseudacris triseriata: western chorus frog

17 Order Anura, Family Hylidae (Pseudacris crucifer: spring peeper) Identification: adult X on back Wide suction cups Smooth skin To 3.2 cm Call – birdlike peeps, jingling bells (chorus)

18 Pseudacris crucifer: spring peeper Identification: larva Eyes lateral Fin may rise above body Fin generally clear, musculature unpigmented To 3.4 cm

19 Pseudacris crucifer: spring peeper Habitat Adult - wooded areas, edges; low vegetation or on ground Larvae - wooded wetlands Diet Adults - invertebrates Larvae - algae, detritus

20 Pseudacris crucifer: spring peeper Other Breed April – May Single egg attached to structure Larvae morph 2-3 months Central IA is western extent of range Eggs

21 Order Anura, Family Hylidae (Hyla versicolor and Hyla chrysoscelis: gray treefrog) Identification: adult Gray to green White spot below eye Inner legs orange Warty skin Wide suction cups To 5.1 cm Call a trill (slow to fast)

22 Hyla versicolor/chrysoscelis: gray treefrog Identification: larva Red, tapered tail High tail fin To 3 cm Illustration from Conant and Collins (1991)

23 Hyla versicolor/chrysoscelis: gray treefrog Habitat Adult - arboreal; on ground during breeding Larvae - wetlands Food Adults - invertebrates (grab flying insects from air) Larvae – algae, detritus

24 Other Breed May-July Overwinter under objects (glycerol in blood prevents freezing) Individuals change color Hyla versicolor/chrysoscelis: gray treefrog

25 Order Anura, Family Hylidae (Acris crepitans: cricket frog) Identification: adult Somewhat warty Triangle often on head To 3.8 cm Call – clicking marbles

26 Acris crepitans: cricket frog Identification: larva Tail tip usually black Tail dorsal musculature with black bands To 4.4 cm Illustration from Conant and Collins 1991

27 Habitat Adults - prefer permanent water bodies Larvae - in water near adults Food Adults - tiny insects Larvae - algae Acris crepitans: cricket frog

28 Other Hop into water, return to water edge Breed March-April Larvae metamorphose 7 weeks Declining in northern states, northern IA Acris crepitans: cricket frog

29 Order Anura, Family Ranidae (Rana catesbeiana: bullfrog) Identification: adult Large (to > 15 cm) Green to brown body No dorsolateral ridge Call – “rumm” Christoffel et al. 2000

30

31 Rana catesbeiana: bullfrog Identification: larva Greenish, large (to > 16 cm) Black dots

32 Habitat Permanent water bodies (lakes, ponds, rivers) Food Adults - invertebrates and vertebrates (incl. frogs) Larvae - macroscopic algae, plants Rana catesbeiana: bullfrog

33 Other Breed June-July Large egg mass Larvae metamorphose in 2 yrs. Exotic in central IA – threaten native amphibians Rana catesbeiana: bullfrog

34 Order Anura, Family Ranidae (Rana pipiens: northern leopard frog) Identification: adult Spots (rarely unspotted) Dorsolateral ridge To 9 cm Call – long snore, grunts

35 Rana pipiens: northern leopard frog Identification: larva To 8.5 cm Flecks (not dots) Illustration from Conant and Collins 1991

36 Habitat Permanent waters Disperse widely (often far from water) Food Adults – invertebrates Larvae – algae, plants, detritus Unspotted form Rana pipiens: northern leopard frog

37 Other Breed March-April Spherical/elliptical egg mass Larvae metamorphose 3 months Absorbs water transcutaneously Declining – habitat loss (incl. road kills), water pollution (chemicals), UV light(?) Rana pipiens: northern leopard frog


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