Presentation on theme: "Phylum Arthropoda (The Arthropods) By far and away, the most successful animal group ever to live Consists of over 1 million named species, 2 of every."— Presentation transcript:
Phylum Arthropoda (The Arthropods) By far and away, the most successful animal group ever to live Consists of over 1 million named species, 2 of every 3 animals are arthropods. ~ 10 18 individuals. –Inhabit all ecosystems General characteristics All have a hard exoskeleton Composed of protein and chitin –Allows for great variation in function - biological "swiss army knives" –Must molt as they grow –Limits their size Have well developed body segments and appendages Have well developed sensory organs including true eyes and antennae Have open circulatory systems & special gas exchange organs
Subphylum Chilicerata (arachnids, horseshoe crabs & sea spiders) Divided into 3 classes; Arachnida, Merostomata & Pycnogonida Body divided into 2 regions –Abdomen –Cephalothorax (fused head & thorax) Lack jaws Have 6 appendages & no antennae –First appendages form chilicerae (frequently fangs)
Class Arachnida (Spiders, Scorpions, Ticks & Mites) Very diverse classVery diverse class Most species parasitic or predatoryMost species parasitic or predatory Many possess book lungs for gas exchangeMany possess book lungs for gas exchange Spiders are able to produce a strong polymer - silkSpiders are able to produce a strong polymer - silk Chilicera in form of fangsChilicera in form of fangs
Class Merostomata Ancient group of speciesAncient group of species Changed little over 350 million yearsChanged little over 350 million years Aquatic, mostly found on Atlantic & gulf coasts of United StatesAquatic, mostly found on Atlantic & gulf coasts of United States
Subphylum Uniramai (3 Classes) Class Insecta (insects) Class Chilopoda (Centipedes) Class Diplopoda (Millipedes)
Class Insecta (the insects) Far & away the most diverse of animal groupsFar & away the most diverse of animal groups –More types of insects alone than all other animal groups combined –Inhabit all terrestrial & freshwater ecosystems. –Success largely attributed to coevolution with flowering plants.
Insect Body Plan Insects have 6 legsInsects have 6 legs 3 body parts3 body parts –Head –Thorax –Abdomen Most insects have wings, however in many species these are vestigalMost insects have wings, however in many species these are vestigal Have advanced excretory system composed of malphygian tubulesHave advanced excretory system composed of malphygian tubules Exchange gasses through a complex tracheal systemExchange gasses through a complex tracheal system
Vision Have complex compound eye which is usually extremely sensitive to motion and allows 360 0 vision Most insects see well into the UV spectrum
Feeding / Mouthparts Insects usually have specialized jaws/mouthparts suited to their ecological niche
Metamorphosis Most insects undergo a process of metamorphosis - 2 types Incomplete metamorphosis –Larva similar to adult, with differing body proportions –Undergoes a series of molts resulting in adult phenotype
Complete Metamorphosis Larva is very unlike adult phenotype Envelopes self in a coccoon or chrysalis where body breaks-down and reforms into adult form.
Classes Chiopoda & Diplopoda Millipedes (diplopoda) are segmented worm-like animalsMillipedes (diplopoda) are segmented worm-like animals –Have 2 pairs of legs per segment –Primarily herbivores & decomposers Centipedes (Chilopoda)Centipedes (Chilopoda) –Usually terrestrial carnivores –Have 1 pair of antennae –Are often poisonous, using modified front claws to immobilize prey
Subphylum Crustacea Includes crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill & barnaclesIncludes crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill & barnacles Over 40,000 speciesOver 40,000 species Appendages are often highly specializedAppendages are often highly specialized Gas exchange is usually through gillsGas exchange is usually through gills Many species taste delicious in butter
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