INTRODUCTION u There are many different types of organisms (insects, mites, diseases) in the home garden u Very few are pests! u Many beneficial organisms are present u Correct identification of the pest is essential for proper control
SOURCES OF INFORMATION u Universities – UC, State, Community Colleges u Cooperative Extension Offices u State Department of Agriculture u County Department of Agriculture u Local Nurseries – CA Nursery Association
SOURCES OF INFORMATION (cont.) u Libraries u Internet u Private Sector 1.Local Nurseries especially members of the CA Nursery Association 2.Pesticide & Landscape Outlets 3.Pest Control Advisors (PCA’s) 4.Private Horticulture Experts
BALDO’S FAVORITE INTERNET IPM SITES u - Baldo’s Bugs & Roses Website u - UC IPM Online u - University of Florida – Entomology & Nematology Publications u - The American Phytopathological Society
IPM REFERENCE BOOKS u Dreistadt, Steve H Pests of Landscape Trees and Shrubs. University of California. DANR Publication Oakland, CA 327p. ISBN#: X. 3Price $32. u Flint, Mary Louise Pests of the Garden and Small Farm - A Grower’s Guide to Using Less Pesticide. University of California. DANR Publication Oakland, CA 276p. ISBN#: Price $25. u Cranshaw, Whitney Pests of the West - Prevention and Control for Today’s Garden and Small Farm. Fulcrum Publishing, Golden, Colorado, 275p. ISBN#: Excellent book for IPM in North America at a very reasonable price! Price $ u Davidson, R. H. and William F. Lyon Insect Pests of Farm, Garden and Orchard, 8th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, NY, 556p.
IPM REFERENCE BOOKS (cont.) u Essig, E. O Insects of Western North America. The MacMillan Company, NY, 1035p. This book has been out of print for many years. It is the best Book around for insect biologies for western insects. u Horst, Kenneth R Compendium of Rose Diseases. APS Press, The American Phytophathological Society. St. Paul MN, 50p. Best book for rose diseases! Order: The American Phytophathological Society, 3340 Pilot Knob Road, St. Paul, MN 55121, USA. ISBN#: Price - $35. u Johnson, Warren T. and Howard H. Lyon Insects that Feed on Trees and Shrubs,, 2nd edition, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 556p. ISBN#: X. One of the best books for ornamental pests in North America. Price $50.
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) IPM is an environmentally sound integration of all control methods to control pest populations below economic or damaging levels
IPM STRATEGIES u Prevention u Pest & Symptom Identification u Regular Survey for Pests (presence or symptoms) u Establish Action Thresholds & Guidelines
IPM METHODS u Cultural Control u Mechanical & Physical Control u Biological Control u Chemical Control
CULTURAL CONTROL u Growing healthy plants u Buying pest-free plant materials u Choosing resistant varieties u Choosing the planting site u Fertilization - too much or too little u Sanitation - removal of infected plant materials u Watering methods
MECHANICAL & PHYSICAL u Barriers - e.g., copper banding for snails/slugs u Mulching - for weed control & water conservation u Solarization - for control of weeds and diseases u Hosing & Syringing - for control of aphids, mites, & powdery mildew u Handpicking & Crushing - for many large insects and beetles u Hoeing - for weed control Trapping - e.g., pheromone traps for tobacco budworms
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL u Parasites (Parasitoids) - e.g., parasitic wasps & flies u Predators - e.g., lady beetles & lacewings u Diseases - e.g., milky spore for Japanese Beetle, beneficial nematodes, etc.
CHEMICAL CONTROL u Inorganic Pesticides - Derived from elemental sources: Sulfur u Organic Pesticides - Synthetic pesticides further classified by chemical families and modes of action. u Botanical Pesticides - Derived from plant materials: Pyrethrum, rotenone, rynia, bioneem, pepper oil, etc. u Microbial Pesticides - Derived from microbial organisms: Bacillus thuringienses
SIGNAL WORDS u POISON: Highly Toxic - Nicotine Sulfate u DANGER: Highly Toxic - Funginex (Triforine) WARNING: Moderately Toxic - Roundup u CAUTION: Slightly Toxic - many botanicals & microbial pesticides These words give information on the relative toxicity and corrosiveness of the pesticide
Garden Insecticides - Systemics
Insecticides – Contact - Residual
Insecticides – Contact – No Residue
Insecticides - Microbal
WHO DID THIS DAMAGE?
Aphid Natural Enemies Dead Aphid From Aphid Wasp Aphis Wasp Lady Beetle
Cane Boring Insects Most cane boring insects are predaceous on other insects and use rose stems for nesting Predatory aphid wasp
Cynipid Gall Wasps – cause galls on leaves, stems & roots
Leafcutter Bees – d o not eat leaves; they use them for lining nests
Learn To Recognize The Good Bugs Of The Garden Leatherwinged Beetle Lady Beetle Larva Parasitized Aphid – A “Mummy” Lady Beetle Pupae Ground Beetle Scale Feeding Lady Beetle Larvae, Pupae & Adult Mealybug Destroyer Lady Beetle Larvae
Watch out for the Lady Beetles!
Beneficial Hover Fly - larvae look like caterpillars but they are not!
Baldo’s Squish Technique
The Squish Technique – works on other organisms
IPM IN THE HOME GARDEN u Establish damage levels for your own garden u Make observations and record them u Correctly identify the pest u Take the appropriate action; sometimes the appropriate action is no action