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Presentation on theme: "3-18-05."— Presentation transcript:


2 Prostostomia: Ecdysozoa
Major Phyla: 1. Nematoda – round worms 2. Arthropoda – crabs, insects spiders

3 Alternate taxonomy: 4 major lineages
Trilobita (trilobites –extinct) Chelicerata (jaw-like chelicerae, no antennae, simple eyes) Alternate taxonomy: 4 major lineages Phylum: Uniramia (jaw-like mandibles, 1 pair antennae, complex eyes) Crustacea Super- Phylum Arthropoda (jaw-like mandibles, 2 pairs antennae, (Crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimps) Taditional Taxonomy: Phylum Class: Arachnida (spiders, scorpions, mites) Diplopoda (millipedes) Chilopoda (centipedes) Insecta (insects) Crustacea Arthropoda

4 Diplopoda Millipedes; 2 pairs of walking legs on each segment.
Feed on decaying leaves and plant matter. Possibly among the earliest land animals. Fig a

5 Chilopoda Centipedes Terrestrial carnivores.
Head has a pair of antennae and 3 pairs of appendages modified as mouthparts including jaw-like mandibles 1 pair of walking legs per trunk segment Venom in claws of anterior trunk segments

6 Insecta = hexapoda Greatest species diversity among animals.
~ 26 orders. All terrestrial habitats (even beetles in moss beds in Antarctica); some freshwater, few marine, and lots flying insects.

7 - evolution of wing/flight  escape
Oldest insect fossil – Devonian (~400 mya) Reasons for insect diversity: - evolution of wing/flight  escape predators, dispersal to new habitats, etc. - diversification of mouth parts for feeding on plants; - plants and insects adaptive radiation seemed to parallel each other beginning about 100 mya and continued until about 50 mya. Insects probably played a major role in (caused ?) the angiosperm radiation because of specific role as pollinators.

8 Major Orders of Insects 
Order # spp Examples  Large impact on humans

9 Insect Anatomy Fig Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

10 Insect digestion and excretion
Digestive system – complete; specialized organs with discrete functions. Malpighian tubules – remove nitrogenous waste from hemolymph in form of uric acid; reabsorption of H2O by intestinal hind gut.

11 Respiration by a chitin-lined tracheal system blue .
Insect respiration Respiration by a chitin-lined tracheal system blue air is carried from spiracles directly to the cells .

12 Insect Reproduction Separate sexes.
Metamorphosis is central to insect development. Incomplete metamorphosis: eg. grasshoppers, cockroach; young resemble smaller adults. Complete metamorphosis: eg. butterfly, flies; larval stages look different from adults and food source different. Morphology changes completely during pupal stage and emerge as adults. Fig

13 Control of Moulting and Metamorphosis
Role of Ecdysone and Juvenile Hormone. Overhead

14 ~ 40,000 species; almost all aquatic.
Crustacea ~ 40,000 species; almost all aquatic. A few terrestrial or semi-terrestrial. Crustaceans include lobsters, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, and barnacles. Appendages specialized on segments: - Claws, mouth parts, walking legs, swimming legs. - Can regenerate lost appendages during molting. Fig



17 Crustacean physiology
Respiration: - small species, across cuticle. - large species: across gills. Open circulatory system Excretion: nitrogenous wastes mostly NH3, by diffusion from modified coelomoducts called antennal or maxillary glands. Reproduction: mostly separate sexes (barnacles are hemaphrodite) Males use a specialized pair of appendages to transfer sperm to the female’s reproductive pore. Most aquatic species have several larval stages.

18 Major Crustacean Orders
Isopods - ~ 10,000 species, largest groups of crustaceans. Copepods - small; important in aquatic ecosystems; eat phytoplantons; eaten by large animals (fish). Decapods – 10 walking legs (5 pairs); lobsters, crabs, crayfish, shrimps. 3 additional anterior pairs of appendages form mouth parts. - cephalothorax covered by carapace.

19 Mysidiacea: - mysid shrimps. Eg
Mysidiacea: - mysid shrimps. Eg. Krill, planktonic, reaching about 3 cm long. major food source for whales; also used for agricultural fertilizer. Cirripedia: - barnacles sessile crustacean on intertidal rocks and whales. parts of cuticle hardened by calcium carbonate. Filter feed by extending long thoracic appendages.

20 Deuterostomia: Echinodermata

21 Echinoderm introduction
Echinoderms are invertebrates, but sister taxon to Phylum Chordata, which includes the vertebrates. Have deuterostome embryo characteristics: radial cleavage, coelom develops from archenteron, and anus formed from blastopore. This classification based on developmental features supported by molecular systematics.

22 Echinoderm characteristics
Sessile or slow-moving. The internal and external parts of the animal radiate from the center, often as 5 spokes. A thin skin covers an endoskeleton of calcareous plates. Unique to echinoderms is the water vascular system, a network of hydraulic canals branching into extensions called tube feet – function in locomotion, feeding, and gas exchange. Separate sexes– fertilization external. Larvae – bilateral symmetry. Adult radial appearance - result of a secondary adaptation to a sessile lifestyle. Sea urchin larva (bilateral symmetry)

23 Echinoderm diversity ~7,000 species, all marine. 6 classes:
Asteroidea (sea stars) Ophiuroidea (brittle stars) Echinoidea (sea urchins and sand dollars) Crinoidea (sea lilies and feather stars) Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers) Concentricycloidea (sea daisies)

24 The undersides of the arms have rows of tube feet.
Asteroidea - Sea stars; five arms (sometimes more) radiating from a central disk. The undersides of the arms have rows of tube feet. Each can act like a suction disk that is controlled by hydraulic and muscular action. Predators; scavenger eaters. Sea stars feeding on Antarctic Weddell seal pup carcass Fig

25 Ophiuroidea - Brittle stars.
distinct central disk; long, flexible arms. Tube feet lack suckers. They move by serpentine lashing of their arms. Some species are suspension-feeders and others are scavengers or predators. Fig c Antarctic brittle star Astrotoma agassizii

26 Echinoidea - Sea urchins and sand dollars
No arms; but have 5 rows of tube feet for locomotion. Sea urchins also move by pivoting their long spines. The mouth of urchin ringed by complex jawlike structures adapted for eating seaweed and other foods. Urchins roughly - Sand dollars, flattened spherical disk. Fig d

27 Crinoidea Sea lilies; attached to the substratum by stalks.
Feather stars; crawl using their long, flexible arms. Both use arms for suspension-feeding. Crinoids show very conservative evolution. Fossilized sea lilies from 500 million years ago could pass for modern members of the class. Sea lily Feathery star on sponge

28 Holothuroidea - Sea cucumbers.
Look different from other echinoderms. No spines, Little or no hard endoskeleton. Oral-aboral axis is elongated. BUT – have 5 rows of tube feet. Some tube feet around the mouth function as feeding tentacles for suspension-feeding or deposit feeding Fig f

29 When did segmentation evolve?

30 When did segmentation evolve?
Three hypotheses: Which hypothesis do you think is most parsimonious?


32 Phylum Chordata Fig. 34.1

33 Phylum Chordata Subphyla Urochordata and Cephalochordata:
no cranium, no backbone  “invertebrates” Subphylum Craniata (text calls it a Clade) : Class Myxini – Hagfish; elemental cranium, no backbone. Class Cephalaspidomorphi – Lamprey; cranium, partial backbone. Subplylum Vertebrata – fused cranium; complete backbone.

34 4 unifying anatomical features of chordates
Notochord Dorsal hollow nerve cord Pharyngeal slits Muscular, postanal tail. Fig. 34.2

35 3. Pharyngeal gill slits and arches.
- connect the pharynx to the outside. - filter device for suspension-feeding in invertebrate chordates. - modified in higher vertebrates for gas exchange, jaw support, hearing. 4. Muscular post-anal tail - contains chevron-shaped muscle blocks. - propulsive force in aquatic species. Early gill arch structures in human embryo

36 Urochordata – tunicates, ascidians (sea squirts)
Mostly sessile marine animals, some pelagic (salps). Some colonial, others solitary. tunicate tunicates Filter feeders

37 Only pharyngeal slits obvious in adult urochordate.
All chordate characteristics evident in larval forms. Tunicate “tadpole” larva Fig. 34.3c

38 Cephalochordata – lancelets or amphioxus
Closely resemble the idealized chordate. The notochord, dorsal nerve cord, numerous gill slits, and postanal tail, all present in adult. Filter feeder

39 Evolutionary relationships
Molecular evidence: cephalochordates are closest relatives to vertebrates and urochordates are the next closest. The evolution of vertebrates from invertebrates probably occurred in 2 stages: -- 1st: an ancestral cephalochordate evolved from an organism resembling a modern urochordate larva; paedogenesis - the precocious development of sexual maturity in a larva (the adult lancelet resembles a well developed tunicate larva). -- 2nd: vertebrate evolved from a cephalochordate. Fossil evidence in the early Cambrium (535 mya) show intermediate fossil forms.

40 Several recent fossil finds in China provide support for the second stage, from cephalochordate to vertebrate. They appear to be “missing links” between groups. Features that appear in these fossils include a more elaborate brain, eyes, a cranium, and hardened structures (“denticles”) in the pharynx that may have functioned somewhat like teeth. These fossils push the vertebrate origins to Cambrian explosion. Fig. 34.5 Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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