3Family. :. Apogonidae (Cardinalfishes) Order. : Family : Apogonidae (Cardinalfishes) Order : Perciformes (perch-likes) Class : Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) Subfamily : Apogoninae Biology : Inhabits coastal reefs, in sandy or weedy areas. Juveniles often occur with sea anemones Other Info : Cardinal Fishes includes a wide variety of larval types in both in appearance and development consist of two subfamilies, containing a total of 122 species and 22 genera (Nelson 1994). Apogonids are small (most species , usually nocturnal predatory residents of reefs and shallow coastal waters in all warm seas.
5Larval sample caught from Andaman Sea last 23/02/05
6Apogonidae illustration. Pigmentation :External stellate melanophore dorsally on the headpigmentation along the dorsal part of the bodyInternal stellate melanophore on the ventral gut and on the anterior surface of the gutDense pigment patch on ventro lateral surface of caudal peduncle
7Morphological Features Two dorsal fins well separated composed of spines and raysLarge eye and large mouthBody shape is laterally compressed and deep bodiedGut is deeply coiled and extends to the midbodyHead shape is large deep, laterally compressed with a short snout lengthLarge mouth reaches to about mideye and nearly horizontal to very oblique9 to 10 number of myomers counts present in the posteriorside of the anal finNo branchiostegal membrane pigment
8Similar families of Apogonidae: Opistognathid species* heavily pigmented branchiostegal membranes* no of myomeres is 25-30Carangids species because of longitudinal melanophore series*more rays by midflexion for the dorsal and fin ray counts* develop supraoccipital crest early in the preflex stage in most species* develop early preopercular spines in the preflex stageApogon species can easily be distiguised from one another primarily by pigment pattern, eye diameter , caudal peduncle depthSome species of Family Apogonidae are utilized in aquarium trade.
9Additional similar familes: ambassids,berycids, carangids, serranids lactariids, kyposids, lethrinids, leptobramids etc,Prominent , anteriorly –located gas bladder, (can be observe during the day only)a typical myomere count of 24 and 2 dorsal fins.can’t be confused with gobiid interms of fins dev’t generally have a longer coiled gutAcropomatids,
10Family. :. Sciaenidae (Drums or croakers) Order. : Family : Sciaenidae (Drums or croakers) Order : Perciformes (perch-likes) Class : Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) Biology : Found in coastal waters. Feeds on invertebrates and small fishes Marketed fresh, dried salted. Climate Zone : tropical
13PIGMENTATION:Highly variable , in large nos. of speciesInitially light to moderate but increase markedly to the juvenile stage graduallyInternal pigment on hindgutPigment anterior to cleitral symphysis
14MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES: Robust bodyTriangular gut, weak spinationDistinct characteristics along dorsal fins and short anal finsAbsence of barbels at tip of lower jawShape of caudal fin is round
15SIMILAR FAMILIES:Stromateidae, Gerreids, Haemulids and Sparids.etcGerridae- distinct melanophores on dorsal midline posterior to 2nd dorsal fins, slimmer bodied ,fin rays counts differ and usually exhibit greater space b/w succesive fin raysHaemulidae bases of 2nd dorsal and anal fins are equal, slim bodied, w/ less deeening on the pectoral region, head spines is very weak, usual weak to preopercle,pigment prominent on posterior midlineStromateidae- early stages high myomere counts less than 30, no gap b/w anus n anal fin origin and nos. of anal and 2nd dorsal about equal
16Family : Sparidae (Porgies) Order : Perciformes (perch-likes) Class : Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) Biology : Found over rock, rubble, or sand bottoms (young frequently found on seagrass beds and the continental shelf down to about 250 m depth, often above 150 m). Feeds on crustaceans, fishes, and mollusks. Marketed fresh and frozen. Climate Zone : subtropical
18Sampling Location: Gutob Bay, Palawan Sampling Gear: Rectangular net Family: SparidaeSampling Location: Gutob Bay, Palawan Sampling Gear: Rectangular netStage: Pre-Flexion stageStage : Pre flexionMeasurements : Body Length 3.45 mmHead Length 1.65 mmED mmSnL mmPAL mmBD mmPDL mmCounts : D: __, 13 A: 14P1: can’t be counted P2: cant beC: 9, 8 Myomeres: 24
19PIGMENTATION:Melanophore along the base of caudal finexternal melanophore series along pigmented ventral finbaseInternal pigment on hindgut and stellate pigment over anterior surface of gutInternal melanophore on the midbrainIncludes 1 to 2 spots anterior to the anus
20Morphological Features: Sparids are compressedPosition of mouth is subterminalBody shape is moderately deep bodiedHead is LargeA supra occipital crestCaudal fin formation is truncateForked Caudal finContinous dorsal finCoiled gut
21mouth small barely reaching anterior edge of the eye Body depth to anus increasesPreopercular weak spineWeak head spinationLater larva have series of unevenly spaced melanophores along venter beginning over gut &extending on notochord tipPre anus length is about 45 to 50% of the BL.* about equal no of finrays in D2 & A fins