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Nematodes of Dogs & Cats. Toxocara sp. Significance the most important parasites infection at birth death: first two weeks (lung migration) larval migration.

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Presentation on theme: "Nematodes of Dogs & Cats. Toxocara sp. Significance the most important parasites infection at birth death: first two weeks (lung migration) larval migration."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nematodes of Dogs & Cats

2 Toxocara sp.

3 Significance the most important parasites infection at birth death: first two weeks (lung migration) larval migration

4 male = 4-10 cm female = 5-18 cm Morpho logy

5 T. canis cervical alae: - long & narrow - semilanceolate

6 cervical alae: - broader - arrow head

7 Life cycle modes of transmission: T. canis transplacenta transcolostrum direct ingestion paratenic host

8 Direct life cycle age < 3 mths 10-15 d tracheal migration prepatent period 4-5 weeks

9 Indirect life cycle (age > 3 mths) 10-15 d somatic migration prepatent period 3-5 weeks (neonates) > 42 d gestation transplacenta transcolostrum paratenic hosts

10 Life cycle Toxocara cati: direct ingestion paratenic host no prenatal transmission

11 Effect on host adult: no clinical signs puppies: severely affected, pneumonia

12 signs: vomiting, emaciation, potbelly, obstruction, dull coats death: 2-3 weeks after birth

13 Diagnos is T. canis T. cati

14 Infective stage Ascarid egg

15 SEM differentiation large, coarse pitted surface Uga et al., Vetrinary Parasitology 92(2000): 287-294 small, fine pitted surface

16 Treatment ivermectindichlorvos fenbendazolefebantel pyrantelpiperazine

17 Saprophytic soil fungi Paecilomyces sp. Ovicidal activity of T. canis (Basualdo J.A., 2000)

18 Use of ivermectin during pregnancy 1) dose: 300 mcg/kg on day 0, 30, and 60 of gestation - reduce # worms by 90% - reduce # eggs by 99.8%

19 Use of ivermectin during pregnancy 2) dose: 300 mcg/kg on day 0, 30, 60 of gestation, 10 d post whelping - reduce # worms by 100% - no eggs were passed in environ. (Payne P.A., 1999)

20 Selamectin topical administration dose: 6 mg/kg (6- 12 mg/kg) reduce # adults by 93.9-98.1% reduce # eggs by 90-95% (McTier T.L., 2000)


22 Control good sanitation regular deworming anthelminti cs: 2, 4, 6 weeks of age

23 Public Health visceral larva migrans (T. canis): children: chronic granulomatous – liver, lung, brain, eye ocular larva migrans choroidoretinitis

24 Toxascaris leonina ( arrowhead worm )

25 male: up to 7 cm female: up to 10 cm head: lanceolate cervical alae

26 Life cycle transmission: direct ingestion paratenic host no larval migration prepatent period = 8-10 weeks

27 Effect on host puppy: potbelly, intermittent diarrhea, poor condition, intestinal obstruction

28 Diagnos is T. leonina T. canis

29 Treatment piperazine dichlorvos pyrantel fenbendazole febentel + praziquantel

30 Ancylostoma caninum (Hookworm)

31 Ancylostoma caninum Geograp hic distribut ion –temper ate climate s –world wide Significan ce –very importan t –causes deaths (all ages) –causes heavy blood losses

32 Morphol ogy worms: red or gray size: up to 1.6 cm mouth: 3 pairs of prominent teeth

33 Life cycle modes of infection: 1. eating (infective eggs) 2. skin penetration (larvae) tracheal migration

34 modes of infection: intrauterine infection transcolostrum paratenic host prepatent period = 15-18 days Life cycle


36 Larval penetration คัน ! moist eczema & ulceration

37 effect on dog “pale mucous membrane”

38 effect on dog “severe blood loss”

39 effect on dog blood vessels rupture & hookworms feed on the released blood (0.25 ml/day)

40 Ancylostoma caninum

41 Clinical signs factors: dose, age, immune status dermatitis puppy pneumonia diarrhea: dark in color (blood & mucus)

42 Clinical signs severe blood loss: iron-deficiency anemia edema, weakness, weight loss poor coat condition

43 heavy infection: frequently fatal within 2 weeks of birth in puppies

44 Diagnosis clinical signs fecal examination: fresh direct smear simple floatation ovoid, thin-shelled, morulate embryo 60 x 40 microns

45 Treatment supportive care: blood transfusions, iron supplement anthelmintics: fenbendazole, ivermectin, tetrahydropyrimidine (pyrantel)

46 Ivermectin + pyrantel ivermectin = 6 mcg/kg pyrantel pamoate = 5 mg/kg 99.6 % reduction of adult hookworms (Nolan T.J. et. al, 1992)

47 Doramectin 1 mg/kg on d30 of gestation reduce somatic larvae in bitches and adult hookworms in bitches and puppies (Schnieder, T. et al, 1996)

48 Moxidectin 1 mg/kg on d55 of gestation (5-8 d before parturition): completely prevent lactogenic infections in puppies. (Epe, C., 1999)

49 Deworming program CDC recommendation: bitch: fenbendazole in the 3 rd trimester (kill migrating larvae) pups: 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age

50 Contro l feces elimination keep kennel- floor dry regular deworming treat bitch with ivermectin

51 Effect on man Adult Ancylostoma caninum excretory/secretor y antigens causes hypersensitivity in man human eosinophilic enteritis

52 Cutaneous larval migration


54 Trichuris vulpis (whipworms)

55 size: 4.5- 7.5 cm. anterior part: 3/4 of body, long & slender Morphology

56 Life cycle location: caecum infection: direct ingestion of infective egg

57 TRICHURISTRICHURIS T R I C H U R I S L I F E C Y C L E prepatent period = 11-12 weeks

58 Effect on host intestine: irritation of caecum & large intestine profuse diarrhea, loss of weight, unthriftiness anemia in heavy infection

59 Diagnosis Lemon-shaped with bipolar plugs 70-90 x 30-40 microns

60 Treatment mebendazolefenbendazole dichlorvosfebantel avermectins are not as effective.

61 Spirocerca lupi (esophageal worm)

62 Definitive host dogs Intermediate host coprophagous beetles lizards, chickens, mice (paratenic host)

63 morphology: red, coiled nematode 3-8 cm long

64 beetles encyst larvae adults in nodule gastroepiploic artery coeliac artery thoracic aorta esophagus (L1) (L 3) prepatent period 5-6 mths

65 Effect on host larval migration: aorta haemorrhage granuloma, stenosis aneurysm, rupture

66 Effect on host adult: embedded in the walls of aorta, esophagus and stomach

67 Effect on host adult: nodules, tumor nodules: interfere with swallowing, respiration and circulation

68 signs: persistent vomiting, wt. loss, hemoptysi s aneurysm burst causes sudden death “esophageal sarcoma” 10% of infected dogs

69 Diagnosi s floatation method radiography endoscopy necropsy

70 Diagnosi s egg: small, oblong in shape, thick-shelled, larva inside 30-38 x 11-15 microns

71 Treatment fenbendaz ole avermecti ns

72 Control isolate infected animals dispose of the vomit and feces keep dogs from eating beetles, paratenic hosts

73 Strongyloides stercoralis (threadworms)

74 Morphology parasitic stage: pathenogenetic female size: 2-9 mm. long filariform esophagus

75 Life cycle host: dogs, cats, men direct life cycle: free- living, parasitic prepatent period = 7 days

76 Life cycle modes of infection: skin penetration ingestion (rare) hyperinfection (mucosal migration) autoinfection (perianal area)

77 Significance reinfection: kennel situation causes severe disease only in young animals heavy infection: death in puppies

78 Effect on host skin: dermatiti s

79 intestine: irritation, catarrhal inflammation, mucosal erosion, necrosis signs: diarrhea (blood), low appetite, weight loss, dehydration, weakness, death

80 lung migration: alveoli destruction, ecchymotic hemorrhage, pneumonia

81 Diagnosi s fecal examination larvae, eggs containing larvae 40-50 microns

82 Treatme nt Dichlorvo s Fenbenda zole Control clean & dry floor

83 Gnathostoma spinigerum

84 G. spinigerum size: 1-3 cm. long head bulb: “ballonets” head & anterior part: spines

85 Life cycle prepatent period: 7 months 1 st int. host: Cyclops 2 nd int. host: fresh water fish, reptiles location: stomach

86 Gnathostoma spinigerum cats, dogs nodule in the gastric wall eggs (L1) Cyclops (L2) fish, frog, snake (L3) man

87 Effect on host Cutaneous larva migrans: – cause intermittent, migratory, painful, priritus swelling

88 Effect on host visceral larva migrans: cough, hematuria, ocular involment eosinophilic meningtitsis myeloencephalit is

89 Pathogenesis larval migration: liver damage, mesentery, diaphragm, thoracic cavity adult: migrate in stomach wall cavity, pus, cyst

90 Diagnosis egg: rare in feces Treatment no specific drug (albendazole)

91 Physaloptera praeputialis

92 Morphology size: 1.5-4.8 cm long body: large, thick, stout nematodes egg: contain a larva when laid

93 Life cycle host: dogs, cats, other carnivores intermediate hosts: crickets, cockroaches, beetles prepatent period = 41-83 days

94 location: stomach, duodenum worldwide distribution

95 Effect on host adult irritation: firmly attach to the lining of the gastric mucosa bleeding, mucosa erosion digestion interference

96 Clinical signs loss of condition vomiting (possibly bloody, mucoid) anorexia

97 Diagnosis fecal examination (floatation) small, oblong eggs containing larvae 40-58 x 30-34 microns

98 Treatment anthelmintics dichlorvos, benzimidazoles, avermectins control pets’ eating habits

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