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Nematodes of Dogs & Cats
Significance the most important parasites infection at birthdeath: first two weeks (lung migration) larval migration
Morphology male = cm female = cm
T. canis cervical alae: - long & narrow - semilanceolate
cervical alae: - broader - arrow head
Life cycle modes of transmission: T. canis transplacentatranscolostrum direct ingestion paratenic host
Direct life cycle 10-15 d tracheal migration prepatent period4-5 weeks age < 3 mths
Indirect life cycle prepatent period 3-5 weeks (neonates)(age > 3 mths) 10-15 d somatic migration transplacenta transcolostrum paratenic hosts > 42 d gestation
Life cycle Toxocara cati: direct ingestion paratenic hostno prenatal transmission
Effect on host adult: no clinical signspuppies: severely affected, pneumonia
signs: vomiting, emaciation, potbelly, obstruction, dull coatsdeath: 2-3 weeks after birth
Diagnosis T. canis T. cati
Infective stage Ascarid egg
SEM differentiation large, coarse pitted surfacesmall, fine pitted surface Uga et al., Vetrinary Parasitology 92(2000):
Treatment ivermectin dichlorvos fenbendazole febantelpyrantel piperazine
Saprophytic soil fungiPaecilomyces sp. Ovicidal activity of T. canis (Basualdo J.A., 2000)
Use of ivermectin during pregnancy1) dose: 300 mcg/kg on day 0, 30, and 60 of gestation - reduce # worms by 90% - reduce # eggs by 99.8%
Use of ivermectin during pregnancy2) dose: 300 mcg/kg on day 0, 30, 60 of gestation, 10 d post whelping - reduce # worms by 100% - no eggs were passed in environ. (Payne P.A., 1999)
Selamectin dose: 6 mg/kg (6-12 mg/kg) reduce # adults by 93.9-98.1%topical administration dose: 6 mg/kg (6-12 mg/kg) reduce # adults by % reduce # eggs by 90-95% (McTier T.L., 2000)
Control good sanitation regular deworming anthelmintics:2, 4, 6 weeks of age
Public Health visceral larva migrans (T. canis):children: chronic granulomatous liver, lung, brain, eye ocular larva migrans choroidoretinitis
Toxascaris leonina (arrowhead worm)
head: lanceolate cervical alaemale: up to 7 cm female: up to 10 cm
Life cycle transmission: direct ingestion paratenic hostno larval migration prepatent period = 8-10 weeks
Effect on host puppy: potbelly, intermittent diarrhea, poor condition, intestinal obstruction
Diagnosis T. canis T. leonina
febentel + praziquantelTreatment piperazine dichlorvos pyrantel fenbendazole febentel + praziquantel
Ancylostoma caninum (Hookworm)
Ancylostoma caninum Geographic distribution temperate climatesworldwide Significance very important causes deaths (all ages) causes heavy blood losses
Morphology worms: red or gray size: up to 1.6 cmmouth: 3 pairs of prominent teeth
Life cycle modes of infection: 1. eating (infective eggs)2. skin penetration (larvae) tracheal migration
Life cycle modes of infection: intrauterine infection transcolostrumparatenic host prepatent period = days
H O K W R M S A N C Y L O S T M
Larval penetration คัน! moist eczema & ulceration
effect on dog “pale mucous membrane”
effect on dog “severe blood loss”
effect on dog blood vessels rupture & hookworms feed on thereleased blood (0.25 ml/day)
Clinical signs factors: dose, age, immune status dermatitispuppy pneumonia diarrhea: dark in color (blood & mucus)
Clinical signs severe blood loss: iron-deficiency anemiaedema, weakness, weight loss poor coat condition
heavy infection: frequently fatal within 2 weeks of birth in puppies
Diagnosis clinical signs fecal examination: fresh direct smearsimple floatation 60 x 40 microns ovoid, thin-shelled, morulate embryo
Treatment supportive care: blood transfusions, iron supplementanthelmintics: fenbendazole, ivermectin, tetrahydropyrimidine (pyrantel)
Ivermectin + pyrantel ivermectin = 6 mcg/kg pyrantel pamoate = 5 mg/kg 99.6 % reduction of adult hookworms (Nolan T.J. et. al, 1992)
Doramectin 1 mg/kg on d30 of gestation reduce somatic larvae in bitches and adult hookworms in bitches and puppies (Schnieder, T. et al, 1996)
Moxidectin 1 mg/kg on d55 of gestation (5-8 d before parturition): completely prevent lactogenic infections in puppies. (Epe, C., 1999)
Deworming program CDC recommendation:bitch: fenbendazole in the 3rd trimester (kill migrating larvae) pups: 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age
Control feces elimination keep kennel-floor dry regular dewormingtreat bitch with ivermectin
Effect on man Adult Ancylostoma caninum excretory/secretory antigenscauses hypersensitivity in man human eosinophilic enteritis
Cutaneous larval migration
Cutaneous larval migration
Trichuris vulpis (whipworms)
Morphology size: cm. anterior part: 3/4 of body, long & slender
Life cycle location: caecuminfection: direct ingestion of infective egg
T R I C H U R I S L I F E C Y C L E prepatent period = weeks
Effect on host intestine: irritation of caecum & large intestineprofuse diarrhea, loss of weight, unthriftiness anemia in heavy infection
Diagnosis 70-90 x microns Lemon-shaped with bipolar plugs
Treatment mebendazole fenbendazole dichlorvos febantelavermectins are not as effective.
Spirocerca lupi (esophageal worm)
Definitive host dogs Intermediate host coprophagous beetles lizards, chickens, mice (paratenic host)
morphology: red, coiled nematode3-8 cm long
beetles encyst larvae esophagus thoracic aorta prepatent period5-6 mths coeliac artery gastroepiploic artery adults in nodule (L1) beetles encyst larvae (L3)
Effect on host larval migration: aorta haemorrhage granuloma, stenosisaneurysm, rupture
Effect on host adult: embedded in the walls of aorta, esophagus and stomach
Effect on host adult: nodules, tumornodules: interfere with swallowing, respiration and circulation
signs: persistent vomiting, wt. loss, hemoptysisaneurysm burst causes sudden death “esophageal sarcoma” 10% of infected dogs
Diagnosis floatation method radiography endoscopy necropsy
Diagnosis egg: small, oblong in shape, thick-shelled, larva inside30-38 x microns
Treatment fenbendazole avermectins
Control isolate infected animals dispose of the vomit and feceskeep dogs from eating beetles, paratenic hosts
Strongyloides stercoralis (threadworms)
Morphology parasitic stage: pathenogenetic female size: 2-9 mm. longfilariform esophagus
Life cycle host: dogs, cats, mendirect life cycle: free-living, parasitic prepatent period = 7 days
Life cycle modes of infection: skin penetration ingestion (rare)hyperinfection (mucosal migration) autoinfection (perianal area)
Significance reinfection: kennel situationcauses severe disease only in young animals heavy infection: death in puppies
Effect on host skin: dermatitis
intestine: irritation, catarrhal inflammation, mucosal erosion, necrosissigns: diarrhea (blood), low appetite, weight loss, dehydration, weakness, death
lung migration: alveoli destruction, ecchymotic hemorrhage, pneumonia
Diagnosis fecal examination larvae, eggs containing larvae40-50 microns
Treatment Dichlorvos FenbendazoleControl clean & dry floor
G. spinigerum size: 1-3 cm. long head bulb: “ballonets”head & anterior part: spines
Life cycle prepatent period: 7 months 1st int. host: Cyclops2nd int. host: fresh water fish, reptiles location: stomach
Gnathostoma spinigerum nodule in the gastric wallcats, dogs nodule in the gastric wall eggs (L1) fish, frog, snake (L3) man Cyclops (L2)
Effect on host Cutaneous larva migrans:cause intermittent, migratory, painful, priritus swelling
Effect on host visceral larva migrans: cough, hematuria,ocular involment eosinophilic meningtitsis myeloencephalitis
Pathogenesis larval migration: liver damage, mesentery, diaphragm, thoracic cavity adult: migrate in stomach wall cavity, pus, cyst
Diagnosis egg: rare in feces Treatment no specific drug (albendazole)
Morphology size: 1.5-4.8 cm long body: large, thick, stout nematodesegg: contain a larva when laid
Life cycle host: dogs, cats, other carnivores intermediate hosts:crickets, cockroaches, beetles prepatent period = days
location: stomach, duodenumworldwide distribution
Effect on host adult irritation: firmly attach to the lining of the gastric mucosa bleeding, mucosa erosion digestion interference
Clinical signs loss of condition vomiting (possibly bloody, mucoid)anorexia
Diagnosis fecal examination (floatation)small, oblong eggs containing larvae 40-58 x microns
Treatment anthelmintics dichlorvos, benzimidazoles, avermectinscontrol pets’ eating habits
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