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Nematodes of Dogs & Cats
Significance the most important parasites infection at birth death: first two weeks (lung migration) larval migration
male = 4-10 cm female = 5-18 cm Morpho logy
T. canis cervical alae: - long & narrow - semilanceolate
cervical alae: - broader - arrow head
Life cycle modes of transmission: T. canis transplacenta transcolostrum direct ingestion paratenic host
Direct life cycle age < 3 mths 10-15 d tracheal migration prepatent period 4-5 weeks
Indirect life cycle (age > 3 mths) 10-15 d somatic migration prepatent period 3-5 weeks (neonates) > 42 d gestation transplacenta transcolostrum paratenic hosts
Life cycle Toxocara cati: direct ingestion paratenic host no prenatal transmission
Effect on host adult: no clinical signs puppies: severely affected, pneumonia
signs: vomiting, emaciation, potbelly, obstruction, dull coats death: 2-3 weeks after birth
Diagnos is T. canis T. cati
Infective stage Ascarid egg
SEM differentiation large, coarse pitted surface Uga et al., Vetrinary Parasitology 92(2000): 287-294 small, fine pitted surface
Treatment ivermectindichlorvos fenbendazolefebantel pyrantelpiperazine
Saprophytic soil fungi Paecilomyces sp. Ovicidal activity of T. canis (Basualdo J.A., 2000)
Use of ivermectin during pregnancy 1) dose: 300 mcg/kg on day 0, 30, and 60 of gestation - reduce # worms by 90% - reduce # eggs by 99.8%
Use of ivermectin during pregnancy 2) dose: 300 mcg/kg on day 0, 30, 60 of gestation, 10 d post whelping - reduce # worms by 100% - no eggs were passed in environ. (Payne P.A., 1999)
Selamectin topical administration dose: 6 mg/kg (6- 12 mg/kg) reduce # adults by 93.9-98.1% reduce # eggs by 90-95% (McTier T.L., 2000)
Control good sanitation regular deworming anthelminti cs: 2, 4, 6 weeks of age
Public Health visceral larva migrans (T. canis): children: chronic granulomatous – liver, lung, brain, eye ocular larva migrans choroidoretinitis
Toxascaris leonina ( arrowhead worm )
male: up to 7 cm female: up to 10 cm head: lanceolate cervical alae
Life cycle transmission: direct ingestion paratenic host no larval migration prepatent period = 8-10 weeks
Effect on host puppy: potbelly, intermittent diarrhea, poor condition, intestinal obstruction
Diagnos is T. leonina T. canis
Treatment piperazine dichlorvos pyrantel fenbendazole febentel + praziquantel
Ancylostoma caninum (Hookworm)
Ancylostoma caninum Geograp hic distribut ion –temper ate climate s –world wide Significan ce –very importan t –causes deaths (all ages) –causes heavy blood losses
Morphol ogy worms: red or gray size: up to 1.6 cm mouth: 3 pairs of prominent teeth
Life cycle modes of infection: 1. eating (infective eggs) 2. skin penetration (larvae) tracheal migration
modes of infection: intrauterine infection transcolostrum paratenic host prepatent period = 15-18 days Life cycle
HOOKWORMSHOOKWORMS H O O K W O R M S ANCYLOSTOMAANCYLOSTOMA A N C Y L O S T O M A
Larval penetration คัน ! moist eczema & ulceration
effect on dog “pale mucous membrane”
effect on dog “severe blood loss”
effect on dog blood vessels rupture & hookworms feed on the released blood (0.25 ml/day)
Clinical signs factors: dose, age, immune status dermatitis puppy pneumonia diarrhea: dark in color (blood & mucus)
Clinical signs severe blood loss: iron-deficiency anemia edema, weakness, weight loss poor coat condition
heavy infection: frequently fatal within 2 weeks of birth in puppies
Diagnosis clinical signs fecal examination: fresh direct smear simple floatation ovoid, thin-shelled, morulate embryo 60 x 40 microns
Treatment supportive care: blood transfusions, iron supplement anthelmintics: fenbendazole, ivermectin, tetrahydropyrimidine (pyrantel)
Ivermectin + pyrantel ivermectin = 6 mcg/kg pyrantel pamoate = 5 mg/kg 99.6 % reduction of adult hookworms (Nolan T.J. et. al, 1992)
Doramectin 1 mg/kg on d30 of gestation reduce somatic larvae in bitches and adult hookworms in bitches and puppies (Schnieder, T. et al, 1996)
Moxidectin 1 mg/kg on d55 of gestation (5-8 d before parturition): completely prevent lactogenic infections in puppies. (Epe, C., 1999)
Deworming program CDC recommendation: bitch: fenbendazole in the 3 rd trimester (kill migrating larvae) pups: 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age
Contro l feces elimination keep kennel- floor dry regular deworming treat bitch with ivermectin
Effect on man Adult Ancylostoma caninum excretory/secretor y antigens causes hypersensitivity in man human eosinophilic enteritis
Cutaneous larval migration
Trichuris vulpis (whipworms)
size: 4.5- 7.5 cm. anterior part: 3/4 of body, long & slender Morphology
Life cycle location: caecum infection: direct ingestion of infective egg
TRICHURISTRICHURIS T R I C H U R I S L I F E C Y C L E prepatent period = 11-12 weeks
Effect on host intestine: irritation of caecum & large intestine profuse diarrhea, loss of weight, unthriftiness anemia in heavy infection
Diagnosis Lemon-shaped with bipolar plugs 70-90 x 30-40 microns
Treatment mebendazolefenbendazole dichlorvosfebantel avermectins are not as effective.
Spirocerca lupi (esophageal worm)
Definitive host dogs Intermediate host coprophagous beetles lizards, chickens, mice (paratenic host)
morphology: red, coiled nematode 3-8 cm long
beetles encyst larvae adults in nodule gastroepiploic artery coeliac artery thoracic aorta esophagus (L1) (L 3) prepatent period 5-6 mths
Effect on host larval migration: aorta haemorrhage granuloma, stenosis aneurysm, rupture
Effect on host adult: embedded in the walls of aorta, esophagus and stomach
Effect on host adult: nodules, tumor nodules: interfere with swallowing, respiration and circulation
signs: persistent vomiting, wt. loss, hemoptysi s aneurysm burst causes sudden death “esophageal sarcoma” 10% of infected dogs
Diagnosi s floatation method radiography endoscopy necropsy
Diagnosi s egg: small, oblong in shape, thick-shelled, larva inside 30-38 x 11-15 microns
Treatment fenbendaz ole avermecti ns
Control isolate infected animals dispose of the vomit and feces keep dogs from eating beetles, paratenic hosts
Strongyloides stercoralis (threadworms)
Morphology parasitic stage: pathenogenetic female size: 2-9 mm. long filariform esophagus
Life cycle host: dogs, cats, men direct life cycle: free- living, parasitic prepatent period = 7 days
Life cycle modes of infection: skin penetration ingestion (rare) hyperinfection (mucosal migration) autoinfection (perianal area)
Significance reinfection: kennel situation causes severe disease only in young animals heavy infection: death in puppies
Effect on host skin: dermatiti s
intestine: irritation, catarrhal inflammation, mucosal erosion, necrosis signs: diarrhea (blood), low appetite, weight loss, dehydration, weakness, death
lung migration: alveoli destruction, ecchymotic hemorrhage, pneumonia
Diagnosi s fecal examination larvae, eggs containing larvae 40-50 microns
Treatme nt Dichlorvo s Fenbenda zole Control clean & dry floor
G. spinigerum size: 1-3 cm. long head bulb: “ballonets” head & anterior part: spines
Life cycle prepatent period: 7 months 1 st int. host: Cyclops 2 nd int. host: fresh water fish, reptiles location: stomach
Gnathostoma spinigerum cats, dogs nodule in the gastric wall eggs (L1) Cyclops (L2) fish, frog, snake (L3) man
Effect on host Cutaneous larva migrans: – cause intermittent, migratory, painful, priritus swelling
Effect on host visceral larva migrans: cough, hematuria, ocular involment eosinophilic meningtitsis myeloencephalit is
Pathogenesis larval migration: liver damage, mesentery, diaphragm, thoracic cavity adult: migrate in stomach wall cavity, pus, cyst
Diagnosis egg: rare in feces Treatment no specific drug (albendazole)
Morphology size: 1.5-4.8 cm long body: large, thick, stout nematodes egg: contain a larva when laid
Life cycle host: dogs, cats, other carnivores intermediate hosts: crickets, cockroaches, beetles prepatent period = 41-83 days
location: stomach, duodenum worldwide distribution
Effect on host adult irritation: firmly attach to the lining of the gastric mucosa bleeding, mucosa erosion digestion interference
Clinical signs loss of condition vomiting (possibly bloody, mucoid) anorexia
Diagnosis fecal examination (floatation) small, oblong eggs containing larvae 40-58 x 30-34 microns
Treatment anthelmintics dichlorvos, benzimidazoles, avermectins control pets’ eating habits
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