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Lepidoptera Butterflies and Moths of New Zealand www.monarch.org.nz Monarch Butterfly NZ Trust.

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Presentation on theme: "Lepidoptera Butterflies and Moths of New Zealand www.monarch.org.nz Monarch Butterfly NZ Trust."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lepidoptera Butterflies and Moths of New Zealand Monarch Butterfly NZ Trust

2 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Lepidoptera  Butterflies and moths belong to the Order of Insects called Lepidoptera (scaly winged).  The wings are covered with tiny scales of differing colours to give us the patterns we see.  Butterflies and moths belong to the Order of Insects called Lepidoptera (scaly winged).  The wings are covered with tiny scales of differing colours to give us the patterns we see. Butterflies Moths

3 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Differences between Butterflies and Moths  Antennae (feelers) – All butterflies have club-like (clavate) antennae, but most moths don’t — they have simple or feathery (pectinate) antennae.  Generally when it rests, a butterfly holds its wings over its back, exposing its body, whereas most moths rest with wings folded over their bodies.  Most butterflies fly by day, and most moths by night. A common exception to this is the black and white Magpie Moth, the larvae of which are so fond of Cineraria.  Antennae (feelers) – All butterflies have club-like (clavate) antennae, but most moths don’t — they have simple or feathery (pectinate) antennae.  Generally when it rests, a butterfly holds its wings over its back, exposing its body, whereas most moths rest with wings folded over their bodies.  Most butterflies fly by day, and most moths by night. A common exception to this is the black and white Magpie Moth, the larvae of which are so fond of Cineraria.

4 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Terminology Endemic:Organisms that are native and can be found ONLY in that location. An example of organisms that are endemic to NZ is Rauparaha’s Copper (Lycaena rauparaha). Native or indigenous:Organisms brought to a location without the help of man, such as by wind, wave and or birds. The Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is an example — it is believed to have flown/been blown here. Introduced or alien:Organisms that did not arrive in that location naturally, but by artificial means. The White butterfly is a classic example — and so is the Painted Apple Moth. Diurnal:Flying during the day Endemic:Organisms that are native and can be found ONLY in that location. An example of organisms that are endemic to NZ is Rauparaha’s Copper (Lycaena rauparaha). Native or indigenous:Organisms brought to a location without the help of man, such as by wind, wave and or birds. The Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is an example — it is believed to have flown/been blown here. Introduced or alien:Organisms that did not arrive in that location naturally, but by artificial means. The White butterfly is a classic example — and so is the Painted Apple Moth. Diurnal:Flying during the day

5 Butterflies of New Zealand

6 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Monarch Danaus plexippus Established in NZ in mid 1800s. Adults overwinter (sometimes in swarms) and may be active throughout the year. 100mm wingspan. Foodplants of Larvae Gomphocarpus fruticosa and other milkweeds e.g. swan plant (Asclepiadiaceae) Located in New Zealand Asclepias curassavica Larva Pupa Kahuku / pepe ariki

7 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Red Admiral Vanessa gonerilla gonerilla A common, widespread endemic butterfly with a related species in the Chatham Islands. Adults over-winter, and thus can be seen throughout the year in gardens, open country and forest. Another species, Vanessa gonerilla ida is endemic to the Chatham Islands. Distinguished by the lack of scalloping around wings and blurred markings on the underside of hindwings. 55mm wingspan. Foodplants of Larvae Stinging Nettle Urtica ferox Stinging Nettle U. incisa Located in New Zealand Kahukura / pepekura

8 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Yellow Admiral Vanessa itea Australasian. Like the Red Admiral, adults overwinter and can be seen all year round. 50mm wingspan. Foodplants of Larvae Located in New Zealand Stinging Nettle Urtica ferox Stinging Nettle U. incisa Larva Pupa Kahukowhai

9 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Cabbage White Pieris rapae rapae This easily recognised butterfly was accidentally introduced into NZ in mm wingspan. Foodplants of Larvae Sedge Gahnia Cabbage Broccoli and other Brassicaceae, also garden plants like alyssum and nasturtium Located in New Zealand Larva Pupa

10 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Common Copper Lycaena salustius This common endemic species occurs in open country from sea level to 2000m. The male is distinguished from other Lycaena species by the double black line along the wing veins. Usually occurs October to April. 30mm wingspan. Foodplants of Larvae Pohuehue Muehlenbeckia species Muehlenbeckia species Located in New Zealand Pepe parariki

11 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Glade Copper Lycaena feredayi This endemic butterfly is found around forest margins and in open, but sheltered, areas. Diagnosed from other Lycaena species by a brown patch on an otherwise yellow underside of the hindwing (entirely brown in some Southland populations). Usually appears November to April. 30mm wingspan. Foodplants of Larvae Muehlenbeckia species Located in New Zealand Muehlenbeckia species

12 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Rauparaha’s Copper Lycaena rauparaha An endemic species complex of at least two species. The North Island one is common around the coast year-round, and has yellow undersides to the hindwing. The South Island one occurs only north of Canterbury/Westland, seen between October-April, and has brown undersides to the hindwing. Male has narrow single black lines along the wing veins. Foodplants of Larvae Muehlenbeckia complexa Located in New Zealand

13 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Forest Ringlet Dodonidia helmsii Located in New Zealand An elusive endemic species occurring in forest glades. Usually from December to February, but can be as early as October. 50mm wingspan. Foodplants of Larvae Sedge Gahnia Forest Tussock Chionochloa Pupa

14 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Boulder Butterfly Lycaena boldenarum boldenarum This endemic butterfly occurs in open, stony places (usually riverbeds), from sea level to 2000m. Usually appears October to April. 20mm wingspan. Foodplants of Larvae Muehlenbeckia auxillaris Located in New Zealand

15 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Common Blue Zizina labradus A common Australasian butterfly found in open, grassy places as far south as West Coast/North Canterbury. Usually appears October to May. 25mm wingspan. Foodplants of Larvae Medicks Medicago Clovers Trifolium and trefoils (Lotus) Located in New Zealand Larva Pupa Pepe aouri

16 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Long-Tailed Blue Lampides boeticus Foodplants of Larvae A widespread cosmopolitan species first recorded in NZ in Flies throughout the year. 30mm wingspan. Gorse Ulex Located in New Zealand Larva Pupa

17 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Southern Blue Zizina oxleyi An endemic species distinguished from the Common Blue by its more strongly- marked underside. Mostly Canterbury/ Otago. Usually November to April. 25mm wingspan. Foodplants of Larvae Native brooms Carmichaelia Clovers Trifolium Located in New Zealand

18 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Butler’s Ringlet Erebiola butleri An endemic butterfly, occurring in sub-alpine tussock and shrubland along the main dividing range of the Southern Alps, m, in January to March. 40mm wingspan. Foodplants of Larvae Snow Tussock Chionochloa Located in New Zealand

19 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Black Mountain Ringlet Percnodaimon merula An endemic alpine butterfly found on the rocky slopes of the South Island mountains m. Usually occurs December to March. 50mm wingspan. Foodplants of Larvae Poa Colensoi Located in New Zealand

20 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Argyrophenga antipodum A common butterfly occurring from sea- level to 2000m. Distinguished from Eastern Tussock Butterfly by a silver margin to the underside of the hindwing. Female much paler than male. Occurs October to March. 45mm wingspan. Foodplants of Larvae Snow Tussock Chionochloa Grasses Located in New Zealand Common Tussock Butterfly

21 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Eastern Tussock Butterfly Argyrophenga janitae A montane to sub-alpine butterfly, m. Is easily distinguished from Argyrophenga antipodum by the male and female’s identical orange colouring. Occurs October to March. 40mm wingspan. Foodplants of Larvae Snow Tussock Chionochloa Located in New Zealand

22 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Nelson Tussock Butterfly Argyrophenga harrisi This butterfly is known only from the northwest Nelson ranges to Lewis Pass. May fly with Argyrophenga janitae, from which it is distinguished by its smaller colour patches and the presence of a silver marginal line around the wings on the underside. Sub-alpine to alpine, m. Occurs in January and February. 45mm wingspan. Foodplants of Larvae Snow Tussock Chionochloa Located in New Zealand

23 Visitors from Australia Monarch Butterfly NZ Trust

24 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Painted Lady Vanessa kershawi A frequent visitor from Australia, arriving September to October and often breeding during summer, but not persisting. 50mm wingspan. Foodplants of Larvae Everlasting Daisy Arctotis and others Visitor from Australia Larva Pupa Pepe parahua

25 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Meadow Argus Junonia villida calybe A rare visitor from Australia. Appears almost anywhere during September to April, but is not known to breed in NZ. 50mm wingspan. Foodplants of Larvae Gentianaceae and others Portulacaceae Larva Visitor from Australia Pupa

26 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Lesser Wanderer Danaus chrysippus petilia A rare visitor from Australia during January to April. Known to breed temporarily in NZ but not persisting. 70mm wingspan. Foodplants of Larvae and other milkweeds e.g. swan plant Visitor from Australia Gomphocarpus fruticosa Asclepias curassavica Larva Pupa

27 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Evening Brown Melanitis leda bankia Foodplants of Larvae Scaevola Goodenia This very rare visitor from Australia flies at dusk and is attracted to house lights, an unusual characteristic for a butterfly. Only two have been collected (April and May). 70mm wingspan. Visitor from Australia

28 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Lemon Migrant Catopsilia pomona pomona Foodplants of Larvae Very rare visitor from Australia. One collected in Auckland in 1870s. 60mm wingspan. Cassia Fistula Visitor from Australia Larva

29 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Blue Moon Hypolimnas bolina nerina Foodplants of Larvae A rare visitor from Australia, but occurs in considerable numbers in some years, usually March to May. 80mm wingspan. Portulaca Visitor from Australia

30 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Blue Tiger Tirumala hamatus hamatus Foodplants of Larvae A very rare visitor from Australia, but has occurred in considerable numbers in one year, all in western areas. 75mm wingspan. Secamone elliptica Visitor from Australia

31 Moths of New Zealand Monarch Butterfly NZ Trust

32 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Gum Emperor Moth Opodiphthera eucalypti New Zealand Locations Foodplants of Larvae Pepper Tree Larva Pupa Eucalyptus Of Australian origin. Nocturnal, adults are unable to feed so their life span is limited to only a few weeks. At present in warmer areas of country only. November and December. 100mm wingspan.

33 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Cinnabar Moth Tyria jacobaeae New Zealand Locations A diurnal species, introduced for the biological control of Ragwort. Has only one generation per year. From October onwards. 30mm wingspan. Foodplants of Larvae Ragwort Senecio jacobaea Larva

34 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Magpie Moth Nyctemera annulata A diurnal moth, often mistaken for a butterfly. Endemic, adults emerge between September and April.45mm wingspan. Foodplants of Larvae Cineraria Thistles and Groundsels Senecio, Brachyglottis repanda, and lettuce New Zealand Locations Larva Pupa Ragwort Senecio jacobaea

35 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Magpie Moth Nyctemera amica Self-introduced, from eastern Australia. Adults emerge between September and April. 45mm wingspan. Foodplants of Larvae Cineraria Thistles and Groundsels Senecio, Brachyglottis repanda, and lettuce New Zealand Locations Larva Pupa

36 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Puriri Moth Aenetus virescens Large nocturnal moth, endemic to NZ, North Island only. Our largest moth. Caterpillars may live up to seven years feeding on the wood of puriri trees and other species. Adults don’t feed, and may only live two days. Occurs September to November. 95mm wingspan. Foodplants of Larvae Puriri Putaputaweta and maire, manuka, wineberry, southern beech, oak and apple New Zealand Locations Larva Anuhe / pepetuna

37 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Convolvulus Hawk Moth Agrius convolvuli Large nocturnal moth, endemic to NZ. Larvae are large, distinctive caterpillars with horn which pupate in the ground. Also called Kumara moth or Sphinx moth. Body length 42mm Hihue Foodplants of Larvae Kumara Larva Convolvulus Calystegia Convolvulus Calystegia Pupa New Zealand Locations

38 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Common Bag Moth Liothula omnivora Nocturnal moth, endemic to NZ. Caterpillar forms in a tough cylindrical bag and attaches to plants. When fully grown the larva secures the bag and pupates. Adult female is flightless, grublike and lives within bag. Male is fully winged. 30mm wingspan. Foodplants of Larvae Puriri Putaputaweta and maire, manuka, wineberry, southern beech, oak and apple New Zealand Locations Larva Kopi / Pu a raukatauri

39 Scientific data courtesy of the Entomological Society of New Zealand Additional Images courtesy of Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Owl Moth Dasypodia cymatodes Large nocturnal moth from Australia. Two similar species: D.cymatodes, usually north of Nelson; D. selenophora found throughout New Zealand but commoner in South Island. Pupation is under bark of Wattles. 70mm wingspan. Foodplants of Larvae and maire, manuka, wineberry, southern beech, oak and apple New Zealand Locations Larva Purere parangunu / Parikori taua Wattle (wherever wattles are found)

40 Credits Monarch Butterfly NZ Trust Chris Rickards — Gilly Jackson, Nigel Venters Reed NZ Nature series — Butterflies and Moths of NZ by Brian Parkinson and Brian Patrick Entomological Society of New Zealand Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research Chris Rickards — Gilly Jackson, Nigel Venters Reed NZ Nature series — Butterflies and Moths of NZ by Brian Parkinson and Brian Patrick Entomological Society of New Zealand Manaaki Whenua, Landcare Research PowerPoint design by Vicky Steele Monarch Butterfly NZ Trust


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