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1511 Zoo Prepared by: Dr. Reem Alajmi Myiasis511 ZooPrepared by: Dr. Reem Alajmi
2DefentionMyiasis can be defined as the invasion of organs and tissues of humans or other vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae, which for at least a period feed upon the living or dead tissues or, in the case of intestinal myiasis, on the hosts ingested food.
3Types of myiasisDifferent terms are used to describe myiasis which affects different parts of the body. For example, cutaneous, dermal or subdermal myiasis, urogenital myiasis, ocular myiasis, nasopharyngeal myiasis, etc.…Myiasis may be obligatory or facultative.
4Obligatory myiasisIn obligatory myiasis it is essential for the fly maggots to live on a live host for at least a certain part of their life such as larvae of Chrysomaya bezziana and Dermatobia hominis.
5Facultative myiasisIn facultative myiasis larvae are normally free-living, but under certain conditions they may infect living hosts. Several types of fly, including species of Calliphora, Lucilia and Sarcophaga, which normally breed in meat may cause myiasis in people by infecting festering sores and wounds.There is no obligatory intestinal myiasis of humans, maggots may enter human digestive system accidentally. In contrast, obligatory intestinal myiasis occurs in animals.
6Types of myiasisOccasionally facultative urogenital myiasis occurs in humans; this usually involves larvae of Musca or Fannia species. Where the adult female attracted to unhygienic discharges and lay their eggs near genital orifices, and on hatching the minute larvae enter the genital orifice and pass up the urogenital tract. Considerable pain may be caused by larvae obstructing these passages, and mucus, blood and eventually larvae may be discharged during urination.
7Types of myiasisFlies that can cause myiasis are classified into three families:- Calliphoridae (non-metallic flies and metallic flies).- Sarcophagidae.- Oestridae.
8Calliphoridae: Non-metallic flies 1- Cordylobia anthropophaga - the common name is tumbu or mango fly. - It has three larval instars, each of them has different body shape.
9Calliphoridae: Non-metallic flies Medical importance:- The larvae cause boil-like swellings on almost any part of the body. These swellings may become sore and inflamed, but they don’t usually contain pus.- Generally just one or two larvae are found in patient; however more than 60 larvae have been recovered from a person
10Calliphoridae: Non-metallic flies The standard method of extracting a larva is to cover the small hole in the swelling with medicinal liquid paraffin. This prevents the larva from breathing through its posterior spiracles with the result that it wriggles a little, further out of the swelling to protrude the spiracles. In so doing it lubricated the pocket in the skin, and the larva can then usually be extracted by gently pressing around the swelling.
11Calliphoridae: Metallic flies Cochliomyia hominivorax - Its common name is New World screwworm Genus: Chrysomyia - Its common name is Old World screwworms 10 species are present, but the most important one is Chrysomya bezziana, because its larvae are obligatory parasites.
12Medical importance of screwworms Larvae are obligatory parasites of living tissues and cause human myiasis, which can be very sever, resulting in considerable damage and disfigurement, especially if the face is attacked.Larvae mainly invade natural orifices, such as the nose, mouth, eyes or vagina, they can cause excruciating pain and misery.Larvae may cause permanent damage.
13Medical importance of screwworms Formerly maggots in open wounds or body openings were often removed my irrigating infested areas with 5-15% chloroform mixed with vegetable oil, but because of health and safety regulations, ethanol can be substituted for chloroform.Surgery may be necessary to exposé deeply embedded larvae.Both screwworms species may cause myaisis in cattle, goats, sheep and horses and are responsible for enormous economic losses to livestock industry.
14Genus Lucilia Genus Calliphora Greenbottles in the genus LuciliaBluebottles in the genus CalliphoraThere medical importance:- The dirty habit of blowflies of feeding on excreta, decaying material and virtually all foods of humans makes them potential vectors of numerous pathogens. However, their medical importance is usually associated with facultative myiasis.
15Genus Lucilia Genus Calliphora Larvae are develop in foul-smelling wounds and ulcerations, especially those producing pus.They have been recorded in hospitals underneath the bandages and dressing of patients.Removal of these maggots usually without any problems because they can be picked out of wound with sterile forceps and antibiotic dressings applied.
16Sarcophagidae: Flesh-flies Only species in the genera Sarcophaga and Wohlfahrtia are of medical importance.Sarcophaga medical importance:- Larvae may occur in wounds cause facultative myiasis, but usually causing little damage because they feed mainly on necrotic tissues.- Accidentally they may cause intestinal myiasis.
17Sarcophagidae: Flesh-flies Wohlfahrtia medical importance: - The most common species is W. magnifica, causes obligatory myaisis in humans and animals (camels, domestic livestock and dogs) - Some 120 – 170 larvae are deposited, often in several batches, in scratches, wounds, sores and ulcerations. - In people the ears, eyes and nose are frequently infested, and this can result in deafness, blindness and even death.
18Oestridae: Bot-fliesThe family Oestridae comprises four subfamilies, three of which (Oestrinae, Gasterophilinae and Hypodermatinae) contain important obligate parasites of domesticated animals. The subfamily Cuterebrinae contains species that cause myiasis to human, rodents, monkeys and livestock.The human botfly Dermatobia hominis invade the subcutaneous tissues of humans on various parts of the body, including head, arms, abdomen, buttocks, thighs, scrotum and axillae.
19Oestridae: Bot-fliesThey produce boil-like swellings which suppurate and this may attract other myiasis-producing flies.Surgical removal of larvae under sterile conditions may be necessary.
20Other myiasis producing flies The black blowfly, sometimes cause facultative myiasis in human.Several species of flies commonly cause myiasis in livestock. There are, for example, flies infesting donkeys and camels, others infesting sheep and goats, cattle and horses and donkeys.
22In a group of 3, write a short report on different types of myaisis based on the location of myiasis. Explain one of these types by giving example of the cause, the host, the medical importance if it has. Note: each group should explain different type of myiasis.