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Federal Forest Research Centre, Vienna, Austria Partners: Q-DETECT CALL FP7-KBBE-2009-3 Work Package 6 - Acoustics National Institute of Biology, Ljubljana,

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Presentation on theme: "Federal Forest Research Centre, Vienna, Austria Partners: Q-DETECT CALL FP7-KBBE-2009-3 Work Package 6 - Acoustics National Institute of Biology, Ljubljana,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Federal Forest Research Centre, Vienna, Austria Partners: Q-DETECT CALL FP7-KBBE Work Package 6 - Acoustics National Institute of Biology, Ljubljana, Slovenia BACKGROUND : Bioacoustic methods for detection of wood boring insect pests exploit the sounds that are generated as a by-product of eating and the locomotion of their larvae. Early detection is aimed at limiting the spread of the infestation. - to create a database of sound files for target pest species (a library to enable their identification) - to employ laser vibrometry as a novel method for detection of wood boring pests - to evaluate and compare bioacoustic techniques developed for detection of wood boring insects ( MICROPHONE & LASER VIBROMETER ) - to develop computer algorithms based on microphone recordings OBJECTIVES : Q-Detect EPPO Workshop, Ljubljana, S LOVENIA, February 2013

3 A S ian Longhorn Beetle (ALB, Anoplophora glabripennis) Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineous) MEASURING INSTRUMENTS : portable digital laser vibrometer (PDV-100, Polytec, Waldbronn, Germany) microphone Two preferred host palms: - Canary Island Date Palm (Phoenix canariensis) - (true) Date Palm (P. dactylifera) HOSTS : ( PORTS – points of entry!) 1. deciduous trees (Acer, Populus, Ulmus …), 2. cut wood 3. wood packaging material host: Pinus sylvestris, P. nigra, P. pinaster …  vector of pine wilt disease! Pine Sawyer (Monochamus galloprovincialis, Monochamus sp.) TARGET SPECIES : Q-Detect EPPO Workshop, Ljubljana, S LOVENIA, February 2013

4 Anoplophora glabripennis (Cerambycidae) exit holes of adults larva damage caused by larvae adult The A SIAN LONGHORN BEETLE attacks mainly healthy trees. Hosts include broadleaf tree species, mostly maple, but also beech, horsechestnut, poplar, birch, willow etc. Females tend to live longer than males, days compared to 3-50 days respectively. ALB may have one or two generations per year. They can overwinter as an egg, larva or pupa. ALB fly for 2 to 3 days after emergence while mating and feeding. Adult ALB are usually present from May to October. A single female can lay 30 to 70 eggs in her lifetime. After days, the eggs hatch and the larvae tunnel into the wood. The adults burrow out of the tree, leaving round exit holes 6-18 mm in diameter. damage caused by feeding adults Q-Detect EPPO Workshop, Ljubljana, S LOVENIA, February 2013

5 The pine sawyer Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) larva damage caused by larvae adult vector for a pine wilt nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus which causes pine wilt disease: Monochamus beetle attacks mainly weakened trees, but when abundant it can also attack healthy trees weakened by the complementary feeding of adults and incisions made by females. Heavy larval feeding causes the death of trees and lowers the timber value. Monochamus galloprovincialis is the vector of the pathogenic nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Insects require 10 to 13 months to develop and have a single generation per year. The emergence occurs from May to September with a peak in July. Females lay eggs from May to August and the young larvae have an extremely fast development before tunneling into the xylem, where they overwinter. Q-Detect EPPO Workshop, Ljubljana, S LOVENIA, February 2013

6 palm tree dying off due to RPW infestation larva the base of leaf attacked by the RPW adult cocoon Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) life cycle T HE RED PALM WEEVIL Preferred hosts: canary date palm date palm and coconut palm. Several generations of larvae may be present in one palm tree; the RPW will not leave the palm as long as there is still enough food for the developing larvae. While the adults cause some damage through feeding, it is the burrowing of the larva into the heart of the palm that can cause the greatest mortality. Several life cycles may be completed in one year, depending on the climate. Q-Detect EPPO Workshop, Ljubljana, S LOVENIA, February 2013

7 S OUND PRODUCTION IN LARVAE OF C ERAMBYCIDAE is a rare phenomenon described in only few species. Larvae probably emit the sounds by the scratching of mandibles against the gallery walls (or knocking of the head against the wall of larval burrow) (Kočárek, 2009; Victorsson and Wikars, 1996; Izumi et al., 1990). W HY DO WE DO IT ? - sounds directed to the larvae of the same species for the purpose of holding together or expressing claim of space; - helps the larva secure resources by keeping away other potentially competitive larvae (canibalistic behaviour among larvae of M. sutor when placed in close contact confirmed this assumtion). OTHER POSSIBLE SOURCES OF LARVAL SOUNDS – BREATHING, SCRAPING MANDIBLES AGAINST THE BARK, STRIDULATION? Wessel (2006): Stridulation in the Coleoptera – An Overview (In: Insect Sounds and Communication; Drosopoulous, Claridge (eds.); CRC Press ) No mention of larval stridulation in either Curculionidae or Cerambycidae family found in the literature. Q-Detect EPPO Workshop, Ljubljana, S LOVENIA, February 2013

8 Recordings were made from wood that was cut as a part of an eradication programme in the Veneto region of N Italy and kept in the quarantine room at the Federal Forest Research Centre in Vienna (BFW). ALB Anoplophora glabripennis 0 kHz 22 kHz 2 ms ALB bites short duration: ms; max intensity at 8-10 kHz. Several pulses are sometimes merged into a longer signal. A clip of an ALB recording from a Populus sp. log. Q-Detect EPPO Workshop, Ljubljana, S LOVENIA, February 2013

9 RPW Rhynchophorus ferrugineous in Slovenia there was only one case of RPW infestation so far (2009); recordings of RPW activity were thus carried out abroad; two most successful field trips took place in June 2011 (Italy) and March 2012 (Israel). Bari, Italy, June 2011: In cooperation with IAMB (Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari) and University of Bari recordings were carried out on several infested Phoenix canariensis trees in urban Bari; Additionally, eight P. canariensis leaves were collected and one RPW larva was inserted inside each rachis (petiole); vibrations were recorded with the laser vibrometer from the surface of leaves. Q-Detect EPPO Workshop, Ljubljana, S LOVENIA, February 2013

10 RPW Beit Dagan, Israel, March 2012: In cooperation with the 7th FP Palm Protect (Dr. Victoria Soroker), recordings were made on potted Date and Canary Palms at the Volcani Center of the Agricultural Research Organisation (ARO). Rhynchophorus ferrugineous Q-Detect EPPO Workshop, Ljubljana, S LOVENIA, February 2013

11 slide courtesy of: Dr. Victoria Soroker, Dr. Amots Hetzroni, ARO, Israel L ASER VIBROMETER M ICROPHONE S ENSITIVITY 0.88 (0.75-1)0.84 ( ) S PECIFICITY 0.88 (0.75-1)0.66 ( ) Q-Detect EPPO Workshop, Ljubljana, S LOVENIA, February 2013

12 " CLICK "" RASP " short: ‘clicks’ duration: 1-4 ms main signal energy lies between: 3-8 kHz AND long: ‘rasps’ duration: ca. 450 ms main signal energy lies between: 2-3 kHz RPW sounds Q-Detect EPPO Workshop, Ljubljana, S LOVENIA, February 2013

13 Microphones, for example, lack a complete coupling with the substrate and therefore detect also the airborne component of he emitted structure-borne signals. They demand amplification → the signals that are picked up are inevitably masked by the environmental airborne noise. The laser vibrometer, however, records only substrate-borne vibrations. Contrary to accelerometers, microphones or other bioacoustic sensors, laser vibrometers are completely non-contact and as such are not affected by the properties of the test surface. Zero loading of the test surface also means that the mechanical properties of the measurement surface are not modified in any way during the recording. disadvantage: laser vibrometers are expensive but with their wide use in measurements where conventional sensors may be difficult or impossible, their price is decreasing and they will become more and more accessible for use in science and applications. ADVANTAGES/ DISADVANTAGES OF THE LASER VIBROMETER COMPARED TO THE MICROPHONE IDEAL FOR USE IN THE FIELD : - lightweight (2.6 kg) portable laser vibrometers, - very robust - 4h battery time PDV-100 LV is characterized by high sensitivity and a broad frequency range between 0 and 22 kHz, robustness and a working distance of several meters to the tested surface, which expands recording posibilities in relation to previously used acoustic methods for detection of wood boring insects. Q-Detect EPPO Workshop, Ljubljana, S LOVENIA, February 2013

14 * Maximum recording time required to detect if the pest is active. - large databases of laser recorded sound files for ALB (Anoplophora glabripennis) and RPW (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) are established - information on the uncertainties, quality (sensitivity/specificity) and full protocols for RPW and ALB detection were provided to WP2 - collaboration with Palm Protect project is well established through Dr. Victoria Soroker of ARO, Israel. 21x 4x OVERVIEW Q-Detect EPPO Workshop, Ljubljana, S LOVENIA, February 2013

15 F UTURE WORK 1. Dissemination events/Workshops: Brussels, January 2013 (DG SANCO) Ljubljana, February 2013 (EPPO Workshop) 2. Publication of work in EPPO Journal; SCI Journals (J Econ Entom, …), 3. Create a task force (with Analogue Electronic Depts. at faculties or SMEs that specialize in anal. elec.) and search for suitable funding schemes to fund the continuation of the project. Q-Detect EPPO Workshop, Ljubljana, S LOVENIA, February 2013

16 Acknowledgements ITALY Servizio Fitosanitario Regione del Veneto Dr. Marco Vettorazzo Stefano Palmieri Univesità di Padova Dr. Andrea Battisti Dr. Massimo Faccoli Servizio Forestale di Treviso Michele Coppe Istituto Agronomico Mediterraneo di Bari Dr. Anna Maria D’Onghia Univesità di Bari Francesco Porcelli ISRAEL Agricultural Research Organization,The Volcani Center Dr. Victoria Soroker Dr. Amos Mizrach Dr. Amots Hetzroni GERMANY Sejona R&D Dr. Sebastian Hübner AUSTRIA BFW Ing. Martin Brandstetter Dr. Christian Tomiczek Philip Menschorn SLOVENIA NIB, Dept. of Entomology Prof. Dr. Andrej Čokl Dr. Maja Zorović Jernej Polajnar Q-Detect EPPO Workshop, Ljubljana, S LOVENIA, February 2013

17 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!

18 slide courtesy of: Dr. Victoria Soroker, Dr. Amots Hetzroni, ARO, Israel N=28Larva foundNo larvae Observer + *21 (9)1 (3) Observer - **4 (1)2 (5) * observer decides the tree IS infested ** observer decides the tree IS NOT infested Microphone N=21Larva foundNo larvae Observer + *15 (17)0 (2) Observer - **2 (1)2 (3) Laser vibrometer Q-Detect EPPO Workshop, Ljubljana, S LOVENIA, February 2013

19 Lucanus cervus (stag beetle) LARVAL STRIDULATION The stridulatory apparatus of stag beetle larvae consists of a pars stridens (file) on the coxae on the middle legs and a plectrum (scraper) on the trochanter of the hind legs. The larvae rub these parts, in their middle and hind legs, together to produce a sound. The sound is a very short rattle, repeated once or twice. It lasts ca. 1 second and the sound frequency is about 11 kHz.stridulatory apparatuspars stridenscoxaeplectrum trochanterIt lasts ca. 1 second and the sound frequency is about 11 kHz

20 1. DO LARVAE STRIDULATE? 2. DO PUPAE STRIDULATE? overview Wessel (2006): Stridulation in the Coleoptera – An Overview (In: Insect Sounds and Communication; Drosopoulous, Claridge (eds.)) Stridulation in larvae maxillo-mandibular Cetoniidae, Dynastidae, Melolonthiade, Ruteliade mesocoxa-hind leg Passalidae, Geotrupidae metatrochanto-mesocoxal Lucanidae Stridulation in pupae gin-traps of tergites 1 to 6 Dynastidae stridulation larva RPW Drei breitbandige Stridulationslaute in Folge Monochamus sutor larva Sequenz mit 47 breitbandigen Stridulationslauten in Folge. Die Länge der Sequenz beträgt fast vier Minuten. Sebastian Hübner: BFW study No mention of larval stridulation in either Curculionidae or Cerambycidae family found in literature.

21 * Maximum recording time required to detect if the pest is active. - large databases of laser recorded sound files for ALB (Anoplophora glabripennis) and RPW (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) - collaboration with Palm Protect project 21x 4x


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