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World War I 1914-1918 By Sam Irving The Causes of WWI BIG Idea: Since the Congress of Vienna, Europe had enjoyed 100 years of relative peace. A confluence.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I 1914-1918 By Sam Irving The Causes of WWI BIG Idea: Since the Congress of Vienna, Europe had enjoyed 100 years of relative peace. A confluence."— Presentation transcript:

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2 World War I By Sam Irving

3 The Causes of WWI BIG Idea: Since the Congress of Vienna, Europe had enjoyed 100 years of relative peace. A confluence of 4 causes would end that peace in BIG Idea: Since the Congress of Vienna, Europe had enjoyed 100 years of relative peace. A confluence of 4 causes would end that peace in 1914.

4 What were the four underlying causes of WWI?

5 Imperialism Industrial Europe competed for raw materials and new markets. Industrial Europe competed for raw materials and new markets.

6 Which countries had the largest empires?

7 Nationalism France wanted Alsace-Lorraine back from Germany. France wanted Alsace-Lorraine back from Germany. (Taken by Bismarck’s Franco-Prussian War 1870)(Taken by Bismarck’s Franco-Prussian War 1870)

8 Pan-Slavism in Austria Pan-Slavism in Austria Slavs, an eastern European ethnic group, resented rule by ethnically- German Austria.Slavs, an eastern European ethnic group, resented rule by ethnically- German Austria. Supported by Serbia and Russia Supported by Serbia and Russia

9 Slavic Europe

10 Militarism :glorification & build-up of the military. :glorification & build-up of the military. DraftsDrafts Arm’s RaceArm’s Race

11 Shells for the French 75 gun

12 German Aeroplane Squadron

13 Alliances :defense agreements among nations. :defense agreements among nations.

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15 Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria, & Italy. Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria, & Italy.

16 Triple Entente: France, Great Britain, & Russia. Triple Entente: France, Great Britain, & Russia.

17 Britain vowed to uphold Belgian neutrality. Britain vowed to uphold Belgian neutrality. Russia supported Slavic nationalists in the Balkans. (Pan-Slavism) Russia supported Slavic nationalists in the Balkans. (Pan-Slavism)

18 A Tangle of Alliances What’s the problem? What’s the problem? Minor conflict could involve all major European powers. Minor conflict could involve all major European powers.

19 Assignment Essential Learning Target: Analyzing and explaining cause and effect relationships using historical information. Essential Learning Target: Analyzing and explaining cause and effect relationships using historical information. “Four Corners” “Four Corners” Depict each of the four causes of World War One in one of the following ways:Depict each of the four causes of World War One in one of the following ways: Graphically (Symbolic picture, political cartoon, etc.) Graphically (Symbolic picture, political cartoon, etc.) Verbally (Poem, rap, symbolic story, etc.) Verbally (Poem, rap, symbolic story, etc.) BE CREATIVE!!!BE CREATIVE!!!

20 Ex. Causes of Imperialism

21 The Steps Leading to War BIG Idea: In 1914, the tangle of alliances led to war. BIG Idea: In 1914, the tangle of alliances led to war. 6 steps took only 1 month.6 steps took only 1 month.

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23 The Steps 1. Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian Emperor, was assassinated June 28, 1914 in Sarajevo. 1. Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian Emperor, was assassinated June 28, 1914 in Sarajevo.

24 Where’s Sarajevo

25 Gavrilo Princip: The assassin Gavrilo Princip: The assassin Member of the Black Hand, a Slavic nationalist group in Serbia.Member of the Black Hand, a Slavic nationalist group in Serbia.

26 2. Austria blames Serbia 2. Austria blames Serbia Declares warDeclares war Supported by GermanySupported by Germany Write Austria a “blank check.” Write Austria a “blank check.”

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28 3. Russia supports Serbia. 3. Russia supports Serbia. Mobilizes against AustriaMobilizes against Austria 4. Germany declares war on Russia and France. 4. Germany declares war on Russia and France.

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30 What’s Germany’s geographic problem for waging war?

31 The Schlieffen Plan : German plan to avoid a 2-front war. : German plan to avoid a 2-front war. 5. Germany invades Belgium on the way to France. 5. Germany invades Belgium on the way to France. 6. Britain declares war on Germany. 6. Britain declares war on Germany.

32 Which cause of WWI does this poster speak to?

33 Nationalism Vast patriotism and enlistment on all sides. Vast patriotism and enlistment on all sides.

34 A war rally in Munich, 1914

35 Assignment: “Steps Leading to WWI Flow Chart” ELT: E xplain cause and effect relationships using historical information that is organized chronologically. ELT: E xplain cause and effect relationships using historical information that is organized chronologically. Make a flow chart showing the 6 steps leading to WWI. Make a flow chart showing the 6 steps leading to WWI. Include a visual component, showing chronological order in some way, and captions explaining the particular steps.Include a visual component, showing chronological order in some way, and captions explaining the particular steps.

36 Ex. Steps leading to WWI

37 Industrial War BIG Idea: As the industrial revolution turned to wartime production, new weapons made WWI a bloody, modern war. BIG Idea: As the industrial revolution turned to wartime production, new weapons made WWI a bloody, modern war.

38 Modern Warfare Machine Guns Machine Guns Machine gun post on the Marne

39 “I suppose I resembled a kind of fish with my mouth open gasping for air. It seemed as if my lungs were gradually shutting up and my heart pounded away in my ears like the beat of a drum…To get air into my lungs was real agony.” -British soldier William Pressey What do you think he is talking about?

40 Poison Gas Poison Gas

41 Chicken Assassins Chicken Assassins

42 Planes first used in battle. Planes first used in battle. German Pilot Richthofen: “The Red Baron”

43 Zeppelins: used for bombing. Zeppelins: used for bombing.

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45 Western Front Battle of the Marne (1914): French victory showing that the war wouldn’t be quick and easy. Battle of the Marne (1914): French victory showing that the war wouldn’t be quick and easy. Schlieffen Plan failedSchlieffen Plan failed

46 What’s this?

47 Trench Warfare Trench Warfare Stalemate: inconclusive, bloody battles.Stalemate: inconclusive, bloody battles. Ex: Battles of Verdun and the Somme Ex: Battles of Verdun and the Somme 2 million dead with no clear victor2 million dead with no clear victor

48 Trenchfoot

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50 “No Man’s Land” Between the Trenches

51 Eastern Front Less-industrialized Russia was ill- prepared for modern war. Less-industrialized Russia was ill- prepared for modern war. Suffered huge casualtiesSuffered huge casualties Russians retreating from the front.

52 Middle-East Britain encouraged Arabs to revolt against their Ottoman Turk rulers. Britain encouraged Arabs to revolt against their Ottoman Turk rulers. Promised Arab independence.Promised Arab independence. “Lawrence of Arabia”

53 On the Sea Each side tried to disrupt the shipping of war materials. Each side tried to disrupt the shipping of war materials. Britain blocked food from Germany.Britain blocked food from Germany. German submarines sank civilian and commercial ships.German submarines sank civilian and commercial ships. German “U-Boat”

54 Assignment: “The Great War” ELT: Analyze the impact of major wars throughout the modern world. ELT: Analyze the impact of major wars throughout the modern world. “The Great War” “The Great War” Guided ReadingGuided Reading

55 What does this poster say about the war effort during WWI?

56 Total War BIG Idea: In a total war, like WWI, governments direct all people and resources to the war effort. BIG Idea: In a total war, like WWI, governments direct all people and resources to the war effort.

57 What aspect of total war is shown here?

58 Increased government powers. Increased government powers. Taxes & loansTaxes & loans Fixed prices & wagesFixed prices & wages Food rationingFood rationing

59 What’s a bond?

60 Propaganda: the spreading of ideas to promote a cause or damage an opposing cause. Propaganda: the spreading of ideas to promote a cause or damage an opposing cause. To control public opinionTo control public opinion Often kept accurate death tolls from the publicOften kept accurate death tolls from the public

61 What emotions does this poster appeal to? What emotions does this poster appeal to? How is gender used in this image? How is gender used in this image?

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63 Women and WWI Kept industry running while men were at war. Kept industry running while men were at war. Served as front line nurses. Served as front line nurses. “stopping hemorrhages, replacing intestines, with gruesome human remains heaped on the floor.”“stopping hemorrhages, replacing intestines, with gruesome human remains heaped on the floor.” How would this challenge gender norms?How would this challenge gender norms? Worked towards more equality and female suffrage. Worked towards more equality and female suffrage.

64 Activity: WWI Propaganda Poster Analysis Essential Learning Target: Give examples of how religion and philosophical beliefs have affected society. Essential Learning Target: Give examples of how religion and philosophical beliefs have affected society. Analyze a poster for it’s emotional appeal, elements of total war, use of gender, etc. Analyze a poster for it’s emotional appeal, elements of total war, use of gender, etc.

65 Ending the War, Making the Peace? BIG Idea: The U.S. provided the allies with the troops and industry to win the war. BIG Idea: The U.S. provided the allies with the troops and industry to win the war. The peace settlements, however, proved to be a ticking time bomb. The peace settlements, however, proved to be a ticking time bomb.

66 The Russian Revolution 1917 How was Russia doing in WWI and why? How was Russia doing in WWI and why?

67 Low Morale for war led to a loss of faith in the Czarist gov’t. Low Morale for war led to a loss of faith in the Czarist gov’t. Unarmed soldiersUnarmed soldiers Food shortagesFood shortages Czar Nicholas II personally leading the army in WWI. “Is this folly or treason?”

68 AlexiA & Czar Nicholas II

69 Rasputin

70 Tsar Nicolas II abdicates, or steps down from power, in Tsar Nicolas II abdicates, or steps down from power, in Creates a power vacuum.Creates a power vacuum. Communists, under Lenin, come to power. Communists, under Lenin, come to power. “Peace, land, and Bread”“Peace, land, and Bread”

71 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 1918 Russia & GermanyRussia & Germany Russia left WWIRussia left WWI Germany now focused on the western front. Germany now focused on the western front.

72 U.S. declares war on Germany 1917

73 Germans sank the Lusitania, a commercial ship, in Germans sank the Lusitania, a commercial ship, in Americans killed128 Americans killed

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75 What’s going on here?

76 Zimmerman Note: an intercepted note from Germany encouraging Mexico to attack the U.S. “On the first of February we intend to begin submarine warfare unrestricted. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavour to keep neutral the United States of America. If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement...”

77 Was $ a factor? Between , U.S. exports quadrupled & the U.S. went from a debtor nation to creditor nation. Between , U.S. exports quadrupled & the U.S. went from a debtor nation to creditor nation. These exports went to the Allies, since Germany was cut of by the British blockade. These exports went to the Allies, since Germany was cut of by the British blockade. U.S. financial interests sided with the Allies. U.S. financial interests sided with the Allies.

78 American industrial resources and troops turned the tide of war. American industrial resources and troops turned the tide of war. War ends Nov. 11 th, War ends Nov. 11 th, How do we remember this day?How do we remember this day? Allies winAllies win

79 Which major power suffered the most combined casualties? The least? Why?

80 Effects of the War Over 9 million dead soldiers. Over 9 million dead soldiers. Spanish Flu pandemic killed million in 1920.Spanish Flu pandemic killed million in More dead in 1 day than during the entire plague.More dead in 1 day than during the entire plague.

81 WWI Cemetery in Verdun

82 American soldiers who lost limbs in WWI.

83 Prosthetic limbs: A thriving war industry.

84 Austrian Empire broke up. Austrian Empire broke up. New nations created in Eastern Europe along ethnic lines.New nations created in Eastern Europe along ethnic lines. Created German minorities in several new nations.Created German minorities in several new nations. Italy didn’tItaly didn’treceivedterritory.

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86 The Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916 Secret agreement to divide Arab lands of the defeated Ottoman Empire between Britain and France. Secret agreement to divide Arab lands of the defeated Ottoman Empire between Britain and France. Denied ArabDenied Arabindependence.

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88 Armenian Genocide 1915 Ottoman Turks feared Armenian nationalism. Ottoman Turks feared Armenian nationalism. A Christian ethnic minority.A Christian ethnic minority. First modern genocide leaving 1 million dead. First modern genocide leaving 1 million dead. Still denied by TurkeyStill denied by Turkeytoday. Talaat Pasha: Turkish leader of the genocide.

89 Armenian child laying dead along the path of the death marches. “Who today remembers the Armenians?” - Hitler

90 Treaty of Versailles Placed full blame on Germany. Placed full blame on Germany. Reduced German territory and military. Reduced German territory and military. Ordered Germany to pay reparations for Allied losses. Ordered Germany to pay reparations for Allied losses. $32 Billion$32 Billion

91 Key Players of the Peace Settlements Which Major Combative Powers are missing and why? Which Major Combative Powers are missing and why? David Lloyd George (Britain) George Clemenceau (France) Woodrow Wilson (U.S.)

92 Assignment: “Wilson’s 14 Points” ELT: Analyze the impact of major wars on society. ELT: Analyze the impact of major wars on society. Did everyone interpret the meaning of the war and the framework for the peace the same? Did everyone interpret the meaning of the war and the framework for the peace the same? Let’s consider Woodrow Let’s consider Woodrow Wilson’s vision of peace and why it might differ from that of Britain and France.

93 Works Cited A thriving war industry: production of artificial arms and legs. Private collection. Web. 21 Feb Alliances. Chart. World War I - The Great War - Document Archives Bravo Media, Web. 31 Jan Alsace-Lorraine. Map. History of Alsace-Lorraine N.p., 12 Nov Web. 31 Jan American soldier wearing his gas mask. Private collection. Web. Web. 7 Feb Armed Squirrel Private collection. Web. Web. 31 Jan Assassination of Franz Ferdinand. Private collection. Web. Web. 7 Feb

94 Bliston Borough Council Food Office Ration Posters c Wolverhampton City Council, Wolverhampton. Web. Web. 15 Feb "Chain of Friendship". Private collection. Web. Web. 7 Feb Chicken with Gun Private collection. Web. Web. 15 Feb Colonial Empires Map. World Civ Blog N.p., Web. 31 Jan Domino Globe. Private collection. Web. Web. 7 Feb Europe Map. BBC News BBC, n.d. Web. 31 Jan European Flags. Blandford St. Mary CE VA Primary School, Dorset. Web. Web. 31 Jan Farah, Mounir A., and Andrea B. Karls. World History The Human Experience. New York: Glencoe/McGraw Hill, Print. Flagg, James M. Together We Win Private collection. Web. Web. 15 Feb Footsteps. Private collection. Web. Web. 7 Feb

95 Franz Ferdinand Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. Web. Web. 7 Feb French Soldier with Gas Mask. Private collection. Web. Web. 7 Feb Gavrilo Princip. Private collection. Web. Web. 3 Feb German aeroplane squadron Private collection. Web. Web. 31 Jan German submarine U-15. Private collection. Web. Web. 9 Feb Gillray, James. William Pitt and Napoleon Bonaparte 'carving up Europe'. Richgitz/Getty Images. Web. Web. 31 Jan Harris & Ewing,. WWI amputees at Walter Reed Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. Web. 21 Feb Hindenburg Explodes AP File Photo. Web. Web. 7 Feb Hopps, H R. Destroy This Mad Brute Private collection. Web. 15 Feb I Must Break You. Private collection. Web. Web. 7 Feb

96 Killer Cat. Private Collection. Web. Web. 15 Feb Liulevicius, Vejas G. "World War I: the "Great War"." The Teaching Company, Chantilly DVD-ROM. Lord Kitchener War Poster. The Imperial War Museum. Web. Web. 7 Feb Machine Gun Chicken Private collection. Web. Web. 15 Feb Machine Gun Post on the Marne Front. Private collection. Web. Web. 7 Feb Map Detailing the Sykes-Picot Agreement. Map. BBC News. BBC, 29 Nov Web. 21 Feb "Octopus of Imperialism." Cartoon. HistoryMike Ed. Michael E. Brooks. N.p., Web. 15 Jan Peace Bomb. Private collection. Web. 15 Feb "Red Baron" Fokker Triplane AVSIM Online. Web. Web. 7 Feb Rees, Simon. Hitler among a crowd at the outbreak of war. Private collection. Web. Web. 7 Feb

97 Richthofen, Manfred, Freiherr von. Private collection. Web. Web. 7 Feb Russian soldiers abandoning their lines in Galicia. Private collection. Web. Web. 7 Feb Sasquatch. Private collection. Web. Web. 7 Feb Seal of the Black Hand. Private collection. Web. Web. 7 Feb Sheep Watching TV. Private collection. Web. 15 Feb Shells for the French 75 gun. Private collection. Web. Web. 31 Jan Slavic Europe. Map. New World Encyclopedia N.p., 12 Dec Web. 31 Jan Soldier Carrying Casualty. Private collection. Web. Web. 7 Feb Soldiers killed in a barbed wire entanglement. Private collection. Web. Web. 7 Feb Spielvogel, Jackson J. World History: Modern Times. New York: The McGraw- Hill Companies, Print.

98 Squirrel with Machine Gun Private collection. Web. Web. 7 Feb Strothmann, Frederick. Beat Back the Hun With Liberty Bonds Private collection. Web. 15 Feb Taxes Private collection. Web. Web. 15 Feb The Armenian Genocide. Map. Never Again. Ed. David Euredjian. Never Again Campaign, n.d. Web. 21 Feb The Douamont Ossuary cemetery and World War I memorial in Verdun, France Private collection. Web. 21 Feb Thomas Edward Lawrence. Private collection. Web. Web. 9 Feb "Triple Alliance." Map. Wikimedia Commons N.p., 19 Feb Web. 31 Jan Waterlogged Trench Private collection. Web. Web. 7 Feb Women Workers during WWI. Private collection. Web. 15 Feb Zeppelin. Private collection. Web. Web. 7 Feb


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