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Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali’s Contemporaries By A.S. Hashim. MD.

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Presentation on theme: "Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali’s Contemporaries By A.S. Hashim. MD."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali’s Contemporaries By A.S. Hashim. MD

2 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries Supplication بـســـم الله الرحمن الرحيم In the Name of God, Lord of Mercy and Lord of Grace

3 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries Nahjul Balaaghah Nahjul Balaaghah, a highly valued book, consists of: – 254 sermons, – 48 letters, and – 212 sayings of Imam Ali Nahjul Balaaghah is unique to Imam Ali None of the Sahaaba was ever able to produce anything like it: neither in substance nor in literary eloquence. No wonder Ali was referred to as: 1. Sayyid al-Bulaghaa' (Pinnacle of Literary Expression) and 2. Sayyid al-Fu'qahaa, (Pinnacle of the Jurisprudents)

4 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries The 15 References Nahjul Balaaghah contains 15 references on behalf of his companions and contemporaries The quotes appear in various sermons, –said at variable occasions and –about different subjects. The Arabic quotes are from the book of Nahjul Balaaghah, by Dr. Subhi Al-Salih, and so is the numbering of the sermons and pages, 1st Edition, Beirut The Number of the sermons may differ by a factor of 1 in other volumes of Nahjul Balaaghah The references are quotes by Abd al-Zahra' al-Husayni in vols. I & IV of his work (see Al-Islam.org, internet)

5 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries Time Element The majority of Ali's sayings and speeches were stated: –During his Khilaafah when in Kufa, –At Different Places –At Different Occasions –Often at Khutba of Jumu’ah

6 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 118, Ali in praise of faithful followers See next slide please –Other sources: 1. Al-Tabari, Ta'rikh; 2. Ibn Qutaybah, al-'Imamah, I, 121; 3. al-Waqidi, in al-Jamal and; 4. al-Mada'ini in his book, see Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Sharh, II, 259.

7 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 118, page 175, Ali in praise of faithful followers Verily, you are the supporters of Truth and the brethren in faith. You are the shield on the day of ordeal, and my trustees among the rest of men. With your support I strike the fleeing ones and anticipate obedience of the forthcoming ones. Therefore, uphold me without cheating, pure from doubt. By Allah, I supersede any over all people. أَنْتُمُ الاَنْصَارُ عَلَى الْحَقِّ، وَالاِخُوَانُ في الدِّينِ، وَالْجُنَنُ يَوْمَ الْبَأْسِ، وَالْبِطَانَةُ دُونَ النَّاسِ، بِكُمْ أَضْرِبُ الْمُدْبِرَ، وَأَرْجُو طَاعَةَ الْمُقْبِلِ، فَأَعِينُوني بِمُنَاصَحَة خَلِيَّة مِنَ الْغِشِّ، سَلِيمَة مِنَ الرَّيْبِ; فَوَ اللهِ إِنِّي لاََوْلَى النَّاسِ بِالنَّاسِ!

8 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 106,, Ali at Siffin See next slide please –Other Sources: 1. Al-Ghazali, Ihya'; 2. al-Harrani, Tuhaf, 126; 3. al-Kulayni, Usul al-Kafi, II, 49; 4. al-Qali, al-'Amali, 171; 5. Abu Talib al-Makki, Qut, I, 382, 407; 6. Abu Nu`aym, Hilyah, I, 74, 75; 7. al-Saduq, al-Khisal, I, 108; 8. al-Qadi al-Quda`i, Dustur, 121; 9. al-Tusi, al-'Amali, * 23.

9 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 106, page 154, Ali at Siffin Through Allah’s Grace you have a status when even your slave maids are honored and your neighbors highly regarded. And even the person (over whom you have no obligation) honors you. But also people highly regard you despite no apprehension of assault from you nor authority over them. It seems that when pledges to Allah are broken you feel no rage, yet you resent it when pledges of your forefathers are broken. Lo! Allah's edicts have been coming to you, and proclaimed through you, and back again to you; yet you have enabled the wrong-doers over you and relinquished your responsibilities to them, and have placed Allah's affairs in their hands. They operate the Islamicly doubtful and tread to their heart’s desires. By Allah, even if they disperse you under every star Allah would surely collect you for their worst day for you. قَدْ بَلَغْتُمْ منْ كَرَامَةِ اللهِ لَكُمْ مَنْزِلَةً تُكْرَمُ بِهَا إِمَاؤُكُمْ، وَتُوصَلُ بِهَا جِيرَانُكُمْ، وَيُعَظِّمُكُمْ مَنْ لاَ فَضْلَ لَكُمْ عَلَيهِ، وَلاَ يَدَلَكُمْ عِنْدَهُ، وَيَهَابُكُمْ مَنْ لاَ يَخَافُ لَكُمْ سَطْوَةً، وَلاَ لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِ إِمْرَةٌ، وَقَدْ تَرَوْنَ عُهُودَ اللهِ مَنْقُوضَةً فَلاَ تَغْضَبُونَ! وَأَنْتُمْ لِنَقْضِ ذِمَمِ آبَائِكُمْ تَأْنَفُونَ! وَكَانَتْ أَمُورُ اللهِ عَلَيْكُمْ تَرِدُ، وَعَنْكُمْ تَصْدُرُ، وَإِلَيْكُمْ تَرْجِعُ، فَمَكَّنْتُمُ الظَّلَمَةَ مِنْ مَنْزِلَتِكُمْ، وَأَلْقَيْتُمْ إِلَيْهِمْ أَزِمَّتَكُمْ، وَأَسْلَمْتُمْ أُمُورَ اللهِ فِي أَيْدِيهمْ، يَعْمَلُونَ بِالشُّبُهَاتِ، وَيَسِيرُونَ في الشَّهَوَاتِ، وَايْمُ اللهِ، لَوْ فَرَّقُوكُمْ تَحْتَ كُلِّ كَوْكَب، لَجَمَعَكُمُ اللهُ لِشَرِّ يَوْم لَهُمْ!

10 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 107,, Ali during one of the days of Siffin See next slide please –Other Sources: 1. Al-Tabari, Ta'rikh, VI, 14, events of 37 H.; 2. al-Kulayni, Furu` al-Kafi, V, 40; 3. Nasr ibn Muzahim, Siffin, 256.

11 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 107, page 155, Ali during one of the days of Siffin I have seen your dispersal and flight from the lines, surrounded by the lowly and insolent, and the Syrian bedouins All this and you are the valiant Arabs and summit of distinction, with the high dignity (as the high nose and hump of the camel). The sigh of my bosom can subside when I see you surrounding them as they surround you, and dislodging them from their position as they dislodged you, Do it by way of arrows, striking them with spears to such an extent that their forward rows fall upon the rear ones, in confusion, just as the thirsty camels removed from their water-points would be in confusion. وَقَدْ رَأَيْتُ جَوْلَتَكُمْ، وَانْحِيَازَكُمْ عَنْ صُفُوفِكُمْ، تَحُوزُكُمُ الْجُفَاةُ الطَّغَامُ، وَأَعْرَابُ أَهْلِ الشَّامِ، وَأَنْتُمْ لَهَامِيمُ الْعَرَبِ، وَيَآفِيخُ الشَّرَفِ، وَالاَْنْفُ الْمُقَدَّمُ، وَالسَّنَامُ الاَْعْظَمُ، وَلَقَدْ شَفَى وَحَاوِحَ صَدْرِي أَنْ رَأَيْتُكُمْ بِأَخَرَة، تَحُوزُونَهُمْ كَمَا حَازُوكُمْ، وَتُزِيلُونَهُمْ عَنْ مَوَاقِفِهمْ كَمَا أَزَالُوكُمْ; حَسّاً بالنِّصَالِ، وَشَجْراً بِالرِّمَاحِ، تَرْكَبُ أُولاهُمْ أُخْرَاهُمْ كَالاِْبِلِ الْهِيمِ الْمَطْرُودَةِ، تُرْمَى عَنْ حِيَاضِهَا، وَتُذَادُ عَنْ مَوَارِدِهَا!

12 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 123,, Ali speech before Siffin Ali’s address to his followers on the battlefield of Siffin. About supporting the weak and the low- spirited during the fighting –Other sources Ibn `Abd Rabbih, al-`Iqd, IV, 338; al-Kulayni, Usul al-Kafi, V, 53; al-Mufid, al-Jamal, 190, from al-Waqidi's al-Jamal; al-Mufid, al-'Irshad, 139, 159; Ibn Miskawayh, Tajarib al-'umam, see Ta'sis al- Shi`ah, 415; al-Tusi, al-'Amali, I, 220.

13 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 123, page 180, Ali speech before Siffin As to the one who feels spirited during the battle but finds a comrade falter. Let him, by Allah’s favor, ward off the enemies from him just as he would for himself. For Allah had willed to give him the superior capacity. For sure death is a quick seeker, and neither does the steadfast escape it nor the fleeing can defy it. The honorable death is when killed (in battle). By Allah, in whose hand lies my life, a thousand strike by the sword are lighter than death in bed (when not in obedience to Allah) وَأَيُّ امْرِىء مِنْكُمْ أَحَسَّ مِنْ نَفْسِهِ رَبَاطَةَ جَأْش عِنْدَ اللِّقَاءِ، وَرَأَى مِنْ أَحَد مِنْ إِخْوَانِهِ فَشَلاً، فَلْيَذُبَّ عَنْ أَخِيهِ بِفَضْلِ نَجْدَتِهِ الَّتي فُضِّلَ بِهَا عَلَيْهِ كَمَا يَذُبُّ عَنْ نَفْسِهِ، فَلَوْ شَاءَ اللهُ لَجَعَلَهُ مِثْلَهُ. إِنَّ الْمَوْتَ طَالِبٌ حَثِيثٌ لاَيَفُوتُهُ الْمُقِيمُ، وَلاَ يُعْجِزُهُ الْهَارِبُ. إِنَّ أَكْرَمَ الْمَوْتِ الْقَتْلُ! وَالَّذِي نَفْسُ ابْنِ أَبِي طَالِب بِيَدِهِ، لاََلْفُ ضَرْبَة بِالسَّيْفِ أَهْوَنُ مِنْ مِيتَة عَلَى الْفِرَاشِ [فِي غَيْرِ طَاعَةِ اللهِ!].

14 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 125,, Ali, Kharijis and Arbitration About the Arbitrators: We did not name people the arbitrators but we named the Quran the arbitrator. The Quran is a book, covered, between two flaps, and it does not speak. When these people invited us to name the Quran as the arbitrator between us, we could not be the party turning away from the Book of Allah. –Other sources Al-Tabari, Ta'rikh, VI, 37, events of 37 H.; Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, Tadhkirah, 100; al-Mufid, al-'Irshad, 157; al-Tabarsi, al-'Ihtijaj, I, 275.

15 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 125, page 183, Ali, Kharijis and Arbitration Be prepared to march to people who had deviated from the Truth and are blind to it. They are entangled in the wrong-doing, and insistent in it. They are spurned from the Holy Book and away from the right path. But you are far from being trusted, nor honorable enough to take refuge in. Wretched as kindling the fire of fighting. Woe to you! You have worried me a great deal. One day I call upon you (to jihad) and one day I address you in confidence, But, neither are you truly enthusiastic at the time of call, nor trustworthy brothers when spoken to in confidence. اسْتَعِدُّوا لِلْمَسِيرِ إِلَى قَوْم حَيَارَى عَنِ الْحَقِّ لاَ يُبْصِرُونَهُ وَمُوزَعِينَ بِالْجَوْرِ لاَ يَعْدِلُونَ بِهِ، جُفَاة عَنِ الْكِتَابِ، نُكُب عَنِ الطَّرِيقِ مَا أَنْتُمْ بَوَثِيقَة يُعْلَقُ بِهَا، وَلاَ زَوَافِرَ يُعْتَصَمُ إِلَيْهَا، لَبِئْس حُشَّاشُ نَارِ الْحَرْبِ أَنْتُمْ! أُفٍّ لَكُمْ! لَقَدْ لَقِيتُ مِنْكُمْ بَرْحاً، يَوْماً أُنَادِيكُمْ وَيَوْماً أُنَاجِيكُمْ، فَلاَ أحْرارُ صِدْق عِنْدَ النِّدَاءِ، وَلاَ إِخْوَانُ ثِقَة عِنْدَ النَّجَاءِ

16 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 131,, Ali about quest of Khilaafah See next slide please –Other sources Sibt, Tadhkirah, 120; al-Qadi al-Nu`man, Da`a'im, 531;(3) Ibn al-'Athir, al-Nihayah, III,154 (z.'a.r), V, 270 (w.`a.a).

17 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 131, page 188, Ali about quest of Khilaafah O' people of the differing minds and divided hearts, whose bodies are present but minds are absent. I lead you to the Truth, but you run away from it, like goats running away from the roaring lion. Hard it is for me to uncover for you the secrets of justice, or straighten up the swerving of the Truth. O' Allah! Thou know that what we did was not to seek power nor to acquire anything from the vanities of the world. But wanted to restore the signs of Thy religion and to usher goodness into the land, so that the repressed among Thy creatures be safe, and Thy forsaken commands might be established. أَيَّتُهَا النُّفُوسُ الُْمخْتَلِفَةُ، وَالْقُلُوبُ الْمُتَشَتِّتَةُ، الشَّاهِدَةُ أَبْدَانُهُمْ، وَالْغَائِبَةُ عَنْهُمْ عُقُولُهُمْ، أَظْأَرُكُمْ عَلَى الْحَقِّ وَأَنْتُمْ تَنْفِرُونَ عَنْهُ نُفُورَ الْمِعْزَى مِنْ وَعْوَعَةِ الاَْسَدِ! هَيْهَاتَ أَنْ أَطْلَعَ بِكُمْ سَرَارَ الْعَدْلِ، أَوْ أُقِيمَ اعْوِجَاجِ الْحَقِّ. اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّكَ تَعْلَمُ أَنَّهُ لَمْ يَكُنِ الَّذِي كَانَ مِنَّا مُنَافَسَةً فِي سُلْطَان، وَلاَ الِْتمَاسَ شِيء مِنْ فُضُولِ الْحُطَامِ، وَلكِنْ لِنَرِدَ الْمَعَالِمَ مِنْ دِينِكَ، وَنُظْهِرَ الاِْصْلاَحَ فِي بِلاَدِكَ، فَيَأْمَنَ الْمَظْلُومُونَ مِنْ عِبَادِكَ، وَتُقَامَ الْمُعَطَّلَةُ مِنْ حُدُودِكَ

18 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 180, Ali criticizing his followers See next slide please –Other sources Al-Thaqafi, al-Gharat, I, 291; al-Tabari, Ta'rikh, VI, 60, events of 38 H.; Ibn al-'Athir, al-Nihayah, I, 188 (t.r.k).

19 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 180, page 258, Ali criticizing his followers I praise Allah for all matters He ordained and actions He decreed, and for my ordeal in you, O' denomination of people who obeys not when I order and responds not when I call upon you. When at ease you engage in vain talk, but when faced with battle you falter. If people agree on one Imam you taunt each other. If faced with the arduous, you back away from it. Woe to your enemy! what do you expect from your triumph or the fighting for your rights? For there is either death or disgrace ahead. By Allah, if my day of death comes. (and it is sure to come), it will separate me from you; though to your companionship I am bereaved and in you I feel forlorn. أَحْمَدُ اللهَ عَلَى مَا قَضَى مِنْ أَمْر، وَقَدَّرَ مِنْ فِعْل، وَعَلَى ابْتِلاَئِي بِكُم أَيَّتُهَا الْفِرْقَةُ الَّتِي إذَا أَمَرْتُ لَمْ تُطِعْ، وَإذَا دَعَوْتُ لَمْ تُجِبْ، إنْ أُمْهِلْتُمْ خُضْتُمْ، وَإنْ حُورِبْتُمْ خُرْتُمْ، وَإنِ اجْتَمَعَ النَّاسُ عَلَى إمَام طَعَنْتُمْ، وَإنْ أُجِبْتُمْ إلَى مُشَاقَّة نَكَصْتُمْ. لاَ أَبَا لِغَيْرِكُمْ! مَا تَنْتَظِرُونَ بِنَصْرِكُمْ وَالْجِهَادِ عَلَى حَقِّكُمْ؟ الْمَوْتَ أَوِ الذُّلَّ لَكُمْ؟ فَوَاللهِ لَئِنْ جَاءَ يَوْمِي ـ وَلَيَأْتِيَنِّي ـ لَيُفَرِّقَنَّ بَيْني وَبَيْنَكُمْ وَأَنا لِصُحْبَتِكُمْ قَال، وَبِكُمْ غَيْرُ كَثِير

20 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 71, Ali criticizing people of Iraq When after Arbitration the Iraqis displayed complacency toward the harassments and continuous attacks of Mu'awiya, Ali delivered this sermon condemning the Iraqis. He referred to their being deceived at Siffin and has likened them to a woman who has five qualities –Other sources Ibn Da`b, al-'Ikhtisas, 155; al-Mufid, al-'Irshad, 161; al-Tabarsi, al-'Ihtijaj, I, 254; al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, II, 236; Ibn Qutaybah, `Uyun, II, 301; al-Mufid, al-Majalis, 105; Sibt, Tadhkirah, 137.

21 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 71, page 100, Ali criticizing people of Iraq O ' people of Iraq! You are like the pregnant woman for sure, who, on completion of her pregnancy delivers a dead baby, whose husband is dead, and period of widowhood is long while only remote relation inherits her. By Allah, I did not come to you of my own accord. I came to you by force of circumstance. I have come to know that you say Ali speaks lie. Woe to you! Against whom do I speak lie? Is it against Allah, and I am the first to have believed in Him. Or against the Prophet, and I am the first who testified to him. Certainly not. By Allah it was an expression you failed to comprehend, nor were you worthy of it. Woe to you. I am offering prudent wisdom free of cost. Lo! if there is a vessel good enough to hold it. أَمَّا بَعْدُ يَا أَهْلَ الْعِرَاقِ، فَإِنَّمَا أَنْتُمْ كَالْمَرْأَةِ الْحَامِلِ، حَمَلَتْ فَلَمَّا أَتَمَّتْ أَمْلَصَتْ، وَمَاتَ قَيِّمُهَا، وَطَالَ تَأَيُّمُهَا، وَوَرِثَهَا أَبْعَدُهَا. أَمَا وَاللهِ مَا أَتَيْتُكُمُ اخْتِيَاراً، وَلكِنْ جَئْتُ إِلَيْكُمْ سَوْقاً، وَلَقَدْ بَلَغَنِي أَنَّكُمْ تَقُولُونَ: [عَليٌّ] يَكْذِبُ، قَاتَلَكُمُ اللهُ! فَعَلَى مَنْ أَكْذِبُ؟ أَعَلَى اللهِ؟ فَأَنَا أَوَّلُ مَنْ آمَنَ بِهِ! أَمْ عَلَى نَبِيِّهِ؟ فَأَنَا أَوَّلُ مَنْ صَدَّقَهُ! كَلاَّ وَاللهِ، ولكِنَّهَا لَهْجَةٌ غِبْتُمْ عَنْهَا، وَلَمْ تَكُونُوا مِنْ أَهْلِهَا، وَيْلُ امِّهِ، كَيْلاً بِغَيْرِ ثَمَن! لَوْ كَانَ لَهُ وِعَاءٌ، (وَلَتَعْلَمُنَّ نَبَأَهُ بَعْدَ حِين).

22 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 25, Ali after the debacle of Yemen The speech was delivered when: –Ali received successive news that Mu’awiya's men were occupying cities and his own officers in Yemen (Ubaydullah ibn Abbas and Sa’id ibn Nimran) came to him in retreat after being overpowered by Busr ibn Abi Arta’. Ali was much perturbed by the slackness of his own men in jihad and their difference with his opinion. –Other sources: 1. Al-Mas`udi, Muruj, III, 149; 2. Ibn `Abd Rabbih, al-`Iqd, III, 337; 3. Ibn `Asakir, Ta'rikh, I, 305, X, 225; 4. al-Baladhuri, Ansab, II, 383; 5. al-Mufid, al-'Irshad,* 163; 6. al-Thaqafi, al-Gharat II, 636.

23 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 25, page 67, Ali after the debacle of Yemen I have been informed that Busr has overpowered Yemen. By Allah, I am afraid these people would shortly snatch the country away: Through their unity on their wrong versus your dispersing from your right. And their obeying their leader’s falsehood, versus disobedience of your Imam in matters of Truth. And their fulfilling their pledge to their master while betraying you. And their appropriate work in their land versus your mischief in your land. Even if I give you charge of a wooden bowl I fear you would run away with its handle. O' Allah! I am tired of them and they are of me. I am weary of them and they are of me. Exchange them for me with better ones, and exchange me for them with an inferior one. O' Allah melt their hearts as salt melts in water. أُنْبِئْتُ بُسْراً قَدِ اطَّلَعَ الَيمنَ، وَإِنِّي وَاللهِ لاََظُنُّ هؤُلاءِ القَوْمَ سَيُدَالُونَ مِنْكُمْ بِاجْتِماعِهمْ عَلَى بَاطِلِهمْ، وَتَفَرُّقِكُمْ عَنْ حَقِّكُمْ، وَبِمَعْصِيَتِكُمْ إِمَامَكُمْ في الحَقِّ، وَطَاعَتِهِمْ إِمَامَهُمْ في البَاطِلِ، وَبِأَدَائِهِمُ الاَْمَانَةَ إِلَى صَاحِبِهِمْ وَخِيَانَتِكُمْ، وَبِصَلاَحِهمْ في بِلاَدِهِمْ وَفَسَادِكُمْ، فَلَو ائْتَمَنْتُ أَحَدَكُمْ عَلَى قَعْب لَخَشِيتُ أَنْ يَذْهَبَ بِعِلاَقَتِهِ. اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي قَدْ مَلِلْتُهُمْ وَمَلُّوني، وَسَئِمْتُهُمْ وَسَئِمُوني، فَأَبْدِلنِي بِهِمْ خَيْراً مِنْهُمْ، وأَبْدِلُهمْ بِي شَرَّاً مِنِّى، اللَّهُمَّ مِثْ قُلُوبَهُمْ كَمَا يُمَاثُ الْمِلْحُ فِي الْمَاء

24 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 27, Ali after the Anbar incident After the battle of Siffin, Mu'awiya had spread terror in the land, with killing and bloodshed all round. Mu’awiya deputized al-Ghamidi with a force of six thousand to attack Hit, al-Anbar and al-Mada'in. –At al-Anbar a contingent of 500 soldiers was posted as guard from Ali’s side, but it could not resist the large army (6,000) of Mu'awiya. –Of the 500 contingent only a hundred men stuck to their position and they did face the invaders stoutly and as far as they could. –The enemy's force made an overwhelming attack on the 100, killing the leader Hassan al-Bakri along with 30 others. –When the battle was over the enemy ransacked al-Anbar with impunity and left the city in shambles.

25 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 27, page 70, Ali after the Anbar incident O' the likes of men who are not manly; just dreams of children and wit of secluded women! How I wish I had not seen you nor known you! By Allah, this acquaintance is none but sorrow leaving behind remorse. May Allah fight you! You filled my heart with seepage and loaded my bosom with rage. You gave me a mouthful of grief, one after another. You shattered my counsel by disobedience, so much so that Quraish started to say that the son of Abu Talib is brave but does not know the tactics of war. Lo! Is any of them with more prowess in war or older in it than I am? I rose for it yet within my twenties, and here I am, having crossed my sixty! Behold! He has unworthy opinion he who is disobeyed! يَا أَشْبَاهَ الرِّجَالِ وَلاَ رِجَالَ! حُلُومُ الاَْطْفَالِ وَعُقُولُ رَبّاتِ الحِجَالِ، لَوَدِدْتُ أَنِّي لَمْ أَرَكُمْ وَلَمْ أَعْرِفْكمْ مَعْرِفَةً ـ وَاللهِ ـ جَرَّتْ نَدَماً، وَأَعقَبَتْ سَدَماً. قَاتَلَكُمُ اللهُ! لَقَدْ مَلاَْتُمْ قَلْبِي قَيْحاً، وَشَحَنْتُمْ صَدْرِي غَيْظاً، وَجَرَّعْتُمُونِي نُغَبَ التَّهْمَامِ أَنْفَاساً، وَأَفْسَدْتُمْ عَلَيَّ رَأْيِي بِالعِصْيَانِ وَالخذْلاَن، حَتَّى قَالَتْ قُريْشٌ: إِنَّ ابْنَ أَبِي طَالِب رَجُلٌ شُجَاعٌ، وَلْكِنْ لاَ عِلْمَ لَهُ بِالحَرْبِ. للهِ أَبُوهُمْ! وَهَلْ أَحدٌ مِنْهُمْ أَشَدُّ لَهَا مِرَاساً، وَأَقْدَمُ فِيهَا مَقَاماً مِنِّي؟! لَقَدْ نَهَضْتُ فِيهَا وَمَا بَلَغْتُ العِشْرِينَ، وها أناذا قَدْ ذَرَّفْتُ عَلَى السِّتِّينَ! وَلكِنْ لا رَأْيَ لَمِنْ لاَ يُطَاعُ!

26 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 29, About the pretext at time of jihad Slide I After the battle of Nahrawan, Mu'awiya sent Dahhak al- Fihri with a force of 4,000 towards Kufa with orders to: –create disorder in the area, kill and keep busy in bloodshed and destruction so that –Ali should find no rest or peace of mind. al-Fihri set off shedding innocent blood and spreading destruction until he reached Tha`labiyyah. In Tha`labiyyah, al-Fihri attacked a caravan of pilgrims going to Mecca and looted their wealth and belongings. In Qutqutanah al-Fihri killed the nephew of Abdullah ibn Mas’ood, (the companion), together with his followers.

27 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 29, About the pretext at time of jihad Slide II When Ali learned of this rack and ruin he called his men to battle to put a stop to the terror, Ali’s people seemed slack, trying to avoid war. –Disgusted with their complacency Ali ascended the pulpit and delivered the sermon (see next slide): He roused them to shame but also to motivate them to protect their country like valiant men, not to employ lame excuses. As a result, Hujr ibn Adi al-Kindi with four thousand men overtook the enemy at Tadmur. At Tadmur a small encounter took place with the enemy and as nighttime settled al-Fihri fled away with nineteen killed on his side In al-Kindi’s force only two persons fell as martyrs.

28 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 29, page 72, About the pretext at time of jihad O' people whose bodies are together but their hearts are apart. Your sweet speech softens even the stones while your action incites the enemy towards you. You talk the talk in gatherings, yet when facing aggression you renege, saying to war "turn thou away, turn thou away!". Disheartening to the person who calls upon you, for the call receives no heed. Nor will there be solace for the one who deals with you. Your excuses are amiss, like that of a debtor unwilling to pay. Neither the meek can ward off oppression nor the Right can be achieved without exertion. Which house besides this one will you protect? And under which Imam after me would you go to fight? أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ، الُْمجْتَمِعَةُ أبْدَانُهُمْ، الُمخْتَلِفَةُ أهْوَاؤُهُمْ، كَلامُكُم يُوهِي الصُّمَّ الصِّلابَ وَفِعْلُكُمْ يُطْمِعُ فِيكُمُ الاَْعْدَاءَ! تَقُولُونَ فِي الَمجَالِسِ: كَيْتَ وَكَيْتَ، فَإذَا جَاءَ الْقِتَالُ قُلْتُمْ: حِيدِي حَيَادِ! مَا عَزَّتْ دَعْوَةُ مَنْ دَعَاكُمْ، وَلاَ اسْتَرَاحَ قَلْبُ مَنْ قَاسَاكُمْ، أَعَالِيلُ بِأَضَالِيلَ، دِفَاعَ ذِي الدَّيْنِ المَطُولِ، لاَ يَمنَعُ الضَّيْمَ الذَّلِيلُ! وَلاَ يُدْرَكُ الْحَقُّ إِلاَ بِالْجِدِّ! أَيَّ دَار بَعْدَ دَارِكُمْ تَمْنَعُونَ، وَمَعَ أَىِّ إِمَام بَعْدِي تُقَاتِلُونَ؟ المَغْرُورُ وَاللهِ مَنْ غَرَرْتُمُوهُ، وَمْنْ فَازَبِكُمْ فَازَ بَالسَّهْمِ الاَْخْيَبِ، وَمَنْ رَمَى بِكُمْ فَقَدْ رَمَى بِأَفْوَقَ نَاصِل

29 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 69,, Ali about his followers’ behavior See next slide please –Other sources: 1. Al-Baladhuri, Ansab, II, 438, 458; 2. (2) al-Ya`qubi, Ta'rikh, II, 184; 3. (3) al-Thaqafi, al-Gharat; 4. (4) al-Tabari, Ta'rikh,* VI, 3444, 3445, chronicles of the year 39.

30 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 69, page 99, Ali about his followers’ behavior Whenever a Syrian force hovers over you, you hide like a lizard in its hole, or a badger in its den, shutting your doors in hiding. By Allah, feeble is the person you uphold! And as if he has been hit by a broken arrow he who leads you. By Allah, numerous you are within the courtyards, but quite few under the banner. With surety I know what can advance you and straighten up your state. But I shall not straighten up your state by marring myself. May Allah disgrace you and discredit you. Lo! You hardly understand the right as you so understand the wrong, and hardly do you crush the wrong just as you crush the right كُلَّما أَطَلَّ عَلَيْكُمْ مَنْسِرٌ مِنْ مَنَاسِرِ أَهْلِ الشَّامِ أَغْلَقَ كُلُّ رَجُل مِنْكُمْ بَابَهُ، وَانْجَحَرَ انْجِحَارَ الضَّبَّةِ في جُحْرِهَا، وَالضَّبُعِ فِي وِجَارِهَا الذَّلِيلُ وَاللهِ مَنْ نَصَرْتُمُوهُ! وَمَنْ رُمِيَ بِكُمْ فَقَدْ رُمِيَ بِأَفْوَقَ نَاصِل. إِنَّكُمْ ـ وَاللهِ ـ لَكَثِيرٌ فِي الْبَاحَاتِ، قَليِلٌ تَحْتَ الرَّايَاتِ، وَإِنِّي لَعَالِمٌ بِمَا يُصْلِحُكُمْ، وَيُقِيمُ أَوَدَكُمْ، وَلكِنِّي واللهِ لاَ أَرى إِصْلاَحَكُمْ بَإِفْسَادِ نَفْسِي. أَضْرَعَ اللهُ خُدُودَكُمْ، وَأَتْعَسَ جُدُودَكُمْ! لاَ تَعْرِفُونَ الْحَقَّ كَمَعْرِفَتِكُمُ الْبَاطِلَ،وَلاَ تُبْطِلُونَ الْبَاطِلَ كَإِبطَالِكُمُ الْحَقَّ!

31 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 97, Ali about Kufa people Although Allah gives time to the oppressor, He will not spare him. Allah watches him on the passage and the position of what can suffocate the throats –Other Sources: Kitab Sulaym ibn Qays, 110; al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, II, 236; Ibn Qutaybah, `Uyun, II, 301; Abu Nu`aym, Hilyah, I, 76; al-Mufid, al-'Irshad, 161; al-Mufid, al-Majalis, 105; Sibt, Tadhkirah, 137; Ibn `Asakir, Ta'rikh, biographical account of `Ali (A); al-Jahiz, al-Bayan, II, 68; al-Baladhuri, Ansab, II, 142; al-Tusi, al-'Amali,* 62

32 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 97, page 144, Ali about Kufa people O' you whose bodies are present but minds are absent, whose hearts are apart. And whose rulers are burdened with them. Your leader obeys Allah but you disobey him while the leader in Syria disobeys Allah but his followers obey him. By Allah, I wish Mu'awiya exchanges you with me like Dinar with Dirham, so that he takes from me ten of you and gives me one of them. O' people of Kufa, I have hampered in you three things and two others: You are deaf despite having ears, dumb despite speaking, and blind despite having eyes. Neither are you true supporters in combat nor dependable in distress. May your hands be soiled! You are the like of camels whose herdsman has disappeared, if they are collected together from one side they disperse from the other. أَيُّهَا الشَّاهِدةُ أَبْدَانُهُمْ، الْغَائِبَةُ عَنْهُمْ عُقُولُهُمْ، الْـمُخْتَلِفَةُ أَهْوَاؤُهُمْ، المُبْتَلَى بِهمْ أُمَرَاؤُهُمْ، صَاحِبُكُمْ يُطِيعُ اللهَ وَأَنْتُمْ تَعْصُونَهُ، وَصَاحِبُ أَهْلِ الشَّامِ يَعْصِي اللهَ وَهُمْ يُطِيعُونَهُ، لَوَدِدْتُ وَاللهِ أَنَّ مُعَاوِيَةَ صَارَفَني بِكُمْ صَرْفَ الدِّينَارِ بِالدِّرْهَمِ، فَأَخَذَ مِنِّي عَشَرَةً مِنْكُمْ وَأَعْطَانِي رَجُلاً مِنْهُمْ! يَاأَهْلَ الْكُوفَةِ، مُنِيتُ مِنْكُمْ بِثَلاَث وَاثنَتَيْنِ: صُمٌّ ذَوُوأَسْمَاع، وَبُكُمٌ ذَوُوكَلاَم، وَعُمْيٌ ذَوُوأَبْصَار، لاَ أَحْرَارُ صِدْق عِنْدَ اللِّقَاءِ، وَلاَ إِخْوَانُ ثِقَة عِنْدَ الْبَلاَءِ! تَرِبَتْ أَيْدِيكُمْ! يَا أَشْبَاهَ الاِْبِلِ غَابَ عَنْهَا رُعَاتُهَا! كُلَّمَا جُمِعَتْ مِنْ جَانِب تَفَرَّقَتْ مِنْ آخَرَ،

33 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 119, Ali on urging people for Jihad When after the Battle of Siffin, Mu'awiya's forces began to attack various places in Ali's area, Ali asked the Iraqis to check them, but they declined on the plea that they would follow him if he himself came forward. –Thereupon Ali delivered this sermon, and clarified his limitations, that if he himself went out it would be impossible to run the affairs of the country. In such circumstances it would be folly to leave the center unguarded. –But what could be anticipated from the one’s who had transformed the victory at hand in Siffin into disarray and opened the door for these debacles. Other Sources: –Ibn al-'Athir, al-Nihayah, I, 215 (th.f.l).

34 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 119, page 176, Ali on urging people for Jihad By Allah, had not I hoped for martyrdom by meeting with the enemy (and my meeting with him has been ordained), I would have secured my mount and got away from you, and would not have sought you so long as North and South differed. Slanderers, recriminating, treacherous, and deceitful. The plethora of your numbers won’t do because of the scarcity of your hearts’ unity. I took you on the clear path [of salvation] whereon no one will perish except the one who does it to himself. He who sticks to it would achieve Heaven and he who deviates from it goes to Hell. وَاللهِ لَوْلاَ رَجَائِي الشَّهَادَةَ عِنْدَ لِقَائِي الْعَدُوَّ ـ وَلَوْ قَدْ حُمَّ لِي لِقَاؤُهُ ـ لَقَرَّبْتُ رِكَابِي ثُمَّ شَخَصْتُ عَنْكُمْ، فَلاَ أَطْلُبُكُمْ مَا اخْتَلَفَ جَنُوبٌ وَشَمَالٌ. طَعَّانِينَ عَيَّابِينَ، حَيَّادِينَ رَوَّاغِينَ. إِنَّهُ لاَ غَنَاءَ فِي كَثْرَةِ عَدَدِكُمْ مَعَ قِلَّةِ اجْتَِماعِ قُلُوبِكُمْ. لَقَدْ حَمَلْتُكُمْ عَلَى الطَّرِيقِ الْوَاضِحِ الَّتي لاَ يَهْلِكُ عَلَيْهَا إِلاَّ هَالِكٌ، مَنِ اسْتَقَامَ فَإِلَى الْجَنَّةِ، وَمَنْ زَلَّ فَإِلَى النَّارِ!

35 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 121, Ali in answer about Arbitration A man from among the companions of Ali stood up and said, "O' Amir al-Mu'minin, you first stopped us from Arbitration and thereafter gave order for it. We do not know which of these two was more appropriate." Ali struck one hand over the other and said (See next slide): –Other Sources: 1. Ibn `Abd Rabbih, al-`Iqd, II, 165; 2. Ibn Talhah, Matalib, I, 100; 3. al-Mufid, al-'Irshad, 139; 4. al-Mufid, al-'Ikhtisas, 153, quoted from Ibn Da'b's work; 5. al-Tabarsi, al-'Ihtijaj, I, 273; 6. al-Zamakhshari, Rabi`, I, 130; 7. al-'Amidi, Ghurar; 8. al-Tusi, al-'Amali,

36 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries In Sermon 121, page 177, Ali in answer about Arbitration But with whom and to whom (do I talk). I want my healing from you but you are my disease, like an extractor of thorn with a thorn, for he knows that the other thorn would bend on itself. O’ Allah, the doctors have despaired of this brutal disease, and tired are those with the rope of this burden. Where are those, a) who were invited to Islam and they accepted, b) who read the Quran and decided according to it, c) who were exhorted to fight and they leapt towards it, as she-camels leap towards their young? Unsheathing their swords, marshaled forward in groups and rows. Some having perished and some have survived. وَلكِنْ بِمَنْ وَإِلَى مَنْ؟ أُرِيدُ أَنْ أُدَاوِيَ بِكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ دَائي، كَنَاقِشِ الشَّوْكَةِ بِالشَّوْكَةِ، وَهُوَ يَعْلَمُ أَنَّ ضَلْعَهَا مَعَهَا! اللَّهُمَّ قَدْ مَلَّتْ أَطِبَّاءُ هذَا الدَّاءِ الدَّوِيِّ، وَكَلَّتِ النَّزْعَةُ بِأَشْطَانِ الرَّكِيِّ! أَيْنَ الْقَوْمُ الَّذِينَ دُعُوا إِلَى الاِسْلاَمِ فَقَبِلُوهُ؟ وَقَرَأُوا الْقُرْآنَ فَأَحْكَمُوهُ؟ وَهِيجُوا إِلى الْجِهَادِ فَوَلَّهُوا اللِّقَاحَ أَوْلاَدَهَا، وَسَلَبُوا السُّيُوفَ أَغْمَادَهَا، وَأَخَذُوا بِأَطْرَافِ الاَْرْضِ زَحْفاً زَحْفاً وَصَفّاً صَفّاً؟! بَعْضٌ هَلَكَ، وَبَعْصٌ نَجَا.

37 Nahjul Balaaghah about Ali's Contemporaries Be in Allah’s Care Thank you and May God Bless you. Dr. A.S. Hashim


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