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Alyssa Deitchman Department of Applied Psychology New York University.

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1 Alyssa Deitchman Department of Applied Psychology New York University

2  Dr. Elise Cappella  Dr. Gigliana Melzi  Dr. Adina Schick  Ha Yeon Kim  Daisy Jackson  Kristin Lees  Project Friend Research Team

3  High unemployment  70% of parents of college students report feelings of anxiety over economy  College tuition increasing rapidly  70.5% of students experience debt  Class of 2010  9.1% unemployment Fetterman, 2008; Hogwharter, 2009; U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2011

4  Generally understood as a static variable  Often used as an independent variable to predict outcomes  Thus, after an economic shock, income might be a dynamic variable Luo, 2009; Teevam, 1995 Income Occupation Education Socioeconomic Status

5  Household economic shock is defined as “an unexpected and substantial variation in household resources.” Lam & Leibbrant (2005), p. 325; U.S. Census Bureau, 2012

6  Children and adolescents as population of focus ◦ Mental health outcomes  Academic experiences and expectations not explored  Emerging adulthood new and relatively unexplored developmental period

7 Stressed parents will not be able to provide emotional support Loss of respect for parents due to income loss Fewer Educational Resources Tuition rates may force these students to take out loans May need a part- time job May have to delay graduation time Questioning Future Students’ understanding of their future is influenced by parents’ position Lowering of academic and/or personal goal aspirations Gender differences exist Economic hardship for females is directly associated with lowered feelings of agency more so than males Females report more feelings of insecurity around economic loss Caspi & Van Nguyen, 1985; Elder 1974; Lempers, 1989 Family Strains Self Esteem

8 Conger, 2008

9  Responses to economic difficulties are mediated by many contextual variables: ◦ Social support ◦ Intelligence ◦ Age ◦ Gender ◦ Temperament  How their family responds to economic shock influences adults’ adaptation and coping to the situation more significantly than other contexts Elder, 1974; McLoyd, 1989

10 Intrapersonal Academic Interpersonal  Explored three domains of college students

11 Intrapersonal Academic Interpersonal  Explored three domains of college students  Investigated how economic shock affects these three interconnected domains  Used qualitative methods to understand the experiences of college students who have undergone an economic shock Household Economic Shock

12 1. How does household economic shock relate to students’ self-concept, agency, and identity? 2. In what ways do students perceive that their experience of economic shock relate to their friendships and social relationships? 3. How does household economic shock relate to students’ perceptions of their ability to achieve present and future academic goals?

13 Stressors Emotional Distress Family Strain Peer Strain Coping Strategies Coping Strategies Questioning Future Increased Motivation

14  Recruited full-time NYU students  Eligibility screener assessed level of economic shock Answer “yes” to 4 out of 5 prompts  7 responded All female 6 seniors (21), 1 junior (20) 5 White students, 1 Asian and 1 Hispanic

15 Hill, Thompson, & Williams, 1997 A priori ideas established about domains expected to emerge in interviews Independent review of transcripts (except 2) to confirm and adjust domains Independent cross analyses followed by research team consensus ratings Stability check (final 2 transcripts) to ensure that the domains accurately reflect the data ‣ Categories: General (applicable to all cases) Typical (applicable to many cases)  Semi-structured interviews used to confirm or disconfirm domains expected to emerge  In-depth interviewing technique focusing on individual experiences  Iterative process

16 Intrapersonal Guilt Anxiety Shame Interpersonal Family Strains Peers Coping Rationalization Compromising Increased Motivation Self-Reliance and Efficacy Re-Evaluating Values

17 “I’ve been having so many panic attacks about paying for graduate school because once I graduate I’m going to have to pay for it myself and ease the burden off my parents” Intrapersonal Anxiety Shame Guilt

18 “My sister was not getting paid by my dad because they were trying to get money back to its investors, so she’s basically still in DA, which is debtor’s anonymous…she decided to leave the company and then basically it went bankrupt last year. So, yeah, my sister now is way better but she had to seek help outside because it was hard for her to deal with my parents.” Interpersonal Family Strains Peers

19 “I think this experience has made me more motivated to be successful and make sure I have a plan that I’m actually going to do something. I have no intention of moving back in with my parents. In that way it has made me much more motivated. I think also this has given me a lot of work experience because I’ve had to work, so I think that benefited me in the long run because I have a lot more experience when applying to grad school and for jobs, I have a lot more experience than a typical undergrad would.” Coping Rationalization Compromising Increased Motivation Self-Reliance and Efficacy Re-Evaluating Values

20 Intrapersonal: ‣Initial stress associated with economic shock ‣Anxiety provoking ‣Questioning future Interpersonal: ‣Family strains more prevalent than peer strains Coping: ‣Accommodative coping ‣Compromising lifestyle as way of confronting economic situation ‣Increased efficacy and motivation not generalizable to sample

21  Intrapersonal: no reports of lowered self-esteem  Interpersonal: family strains stem from economic loss  Academic: economic loss related to questioning professional goals ◦ Increased need for accommodative coping in emerging adults  Iterative inquiry: ◦ Rich elaboration of individual experiences ◦ Explored why or why not these domains were affected

22  Economic loss may truncate emerging adulthood period  Hypothesis generation for future research  Mixed-methods  Meaningful experience of economic loss can help enhance understanding and support of young people

23 Thank you!!! Questions?

24  General: Applicable to all participants Interpersonal changes focused on family strains Guilt Anxiety Coping: Compromising Shift in Values Rationalization

25  Typical to more than ½ of participants ◦ Increased self-efficacy and self-reliance ◦ Increased motivation ◦ Changes in peer relationships ◦ Shame

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