Presentation on theme: "1 Question Do you ever do something wrong to another and then feel that you should do something for them to atone for your wrong doing? What is that act."— Presentation transcript:
1 Question Do you ever do something wrong to another and then feel that you should do something for them to atone for your wrong doing? What is that act called in theological terms? Expiation
2 This Week I. Conclude our exploration of the concept of Purgatory as it relates to salvation in the RC view. II. Remind ourselves of the significance of the Protestant doctrine of the Person and Work of Jesus Christ who, by Himself secures the salvation of the believer Lesson Plan
3 This Week III. Review the continuing debate among Christians relative to the atonement. IV. Examine who is excluded from forgiveness by God V. Probe the principles undergirding the forgiveness of God VI. Thank God for His unmerited and unspeakable gift of forgiveness Lesson Plan
4 I. Purgatory a. While they differed in their understanding of the doctrine, Justin, Tertullian and Origen all shared the belief that purification was necessary for the believer after death. 1 Cor 3:13-15 Every man's work shall be made manifest: for the day shall declare it, because it shall be revealed by fire; and the fire shall try every man's work of what sort it is. If any man's work abide which he hath built thereupon, he shall receive a reward. If any man's work shall be burned, he shall suffer loss: but he himself shall be saved; yet so as by fire. KJV
5 I. Purgatory b. In the 12 th century Purgatory became an important element of the Roman Catholic penitential system. Operating in some fashion like a bank account, every sin credits temporal punishment to the sinner’s account. c. Acts of penance, suffering, and indulgences debit this account. Since sinners most likely will not make full satisfaction for sin in this life, purgatory in the afterlife is necessary to balance the account.
6 I. Purgatory d. Finally, the effect of purgatory serves to motivate Catholics to live righteously because the pain suffered there is very real so it is viewed as a horrific place and to be avoided or shortened to the extent possible. e. The Church affirmed the existence of purgatory at each of the last three ecumenical councils: Trent, Vatican I, and Vatican II.
7 I. Purgatory f. Therefore, purgatory is still taught as official dogma and is an essential part of the Roman Catholic plan of salvation and provides the rationale for why present day believers should continue to pray for the dead. g. Pope Paul VI also reaffirmed that while temporal punishment due to sins have been blotted out as far as guilt is concerned, suffering is due to the sinner as a means of purging one’s soul of its intrinsic ego-centeredness.
8 I. Purgatory h. Belief in the existence of purgatory is also expressed at every Mass during the Liturgy of the Eucharist, where prayers are offered for the dead. Usually the Mass itself is also offered for someone suffering in purgatory.
9 II. Relationship Not Ritual a. Roman Catholic doctrine has developed over the millennia by councils, argued by various factions, and in many cases it has been determined by edicts of Popes who are viewed as Christ’s Vicar (His substitute) on earth. b. Conversely, Protestant theology, while it may have divergent viewpoints, is drawn from the Bible alone without the stricture of binding tradition or the burdensome weight of supposed papal authority.
10 II. Relationship Not Ritual c. The Protestant doctrine of salvation rests in Christ alone. There is no need for the soul to become objectively beautiful to God because the soul has its standing in Christ and it is His imputed righteousness which God sees. 2 Cor 5:21 For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him. KJV d. The believer walks by faith and through the enablement of the Spirit lives righteously. Nevertheless, he has no hope of ever being personally and objectively good enough in himself to stand in the presence of God.
11 II. Relationship Not Ritual e. Since Christ’s payment on the cross constituted complete satisfaction of the debt, there is no need of purgatory. And, if there is no need of purgatory, there is no need for indulgences or penitential works of righteousness. f. God desires fellowship with His people not rituals and works righteousness that cannot save us. May God receive all the glory due Him because of His grace. 1 Cor 1:9 God, who has called you into fellowship with his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, is faithful. NIV
12 III. Two Views a. Unfortunately, the Reformation did nothing to erase the debate in Christendom regarding the meaning of the atonement. Even today true believers are divided on this important question, and so we have basically two differing points of view. b. The differences in these separate points of view are significant, they are no small matter and the debate, which surfaced in the church in the 400s has waxed and waned over the centuries, but still persists.
13 III. Two Views c. The Calvinistic or Satisfaction view teaches that the sacrifice of Christ was expiatory (made up for the offense) in the sense that Christ suffered vicariously (on our behalf) the punishment of the sins of the elect only. It is therefore limited. d. Arminian View. Christ's death was suffered on behalf of all men and benefits all men alike. God then elects for salvation those whom he foresees will believe in Christ of their own free will.
14 III. Two Views e. The Arminian view places the emphasis on the will of man who chooses Christ and by virtue of his choice is saved from his sins. It is synergistic in that man cooperates with God in his own salvation. f. The Calvinistic view places the emphasis on God's choosing of the elect, his irresistible grace, and is dependent upon the initiation of God alone in the salvation of the individual. It is monergistic in that man has no role in his own salvation.
15 IV. Not Forgiven a. Since God is the offended party, his granting of forgiveness to the offender is first and foremost a function of his volition, requiring his initiation and solely dependent upon his character. b. The sinless. There can be nothing meritorious in the person or works of the offender without creating a reciprocal debt or responsibility on the part of God which would require his repayment. Mark 2:17 When Jesus heard it, he saith unto them, They that are whole have no need of the physician, but they that are sick: I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance. KJV
16 IV. Not Forgiven c. Those whom he has not chosen. Forgiveness is a function of his volition and initiation, God is a debtor to no man, therefore, he owes forgiveness to no one. Matt 7:22 Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? and in thy name have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works? KJV
17 IV. Not Forgiven d. Those who reject his provision for forgiveness. As the offended party who is not indebted to the offender in any way, he is entitled to specify the grounds upon which forgiveness may be granted. Acts 4:12 Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved. KJV
18 IV. Not Forgiven e. Everyone. Nowhere does the Bible support the idea of a universal salvation. In those verses which the universalists point to in support of their position, (the all verses), the reference is to all those who shall be saved. 2 Peter 3:9 The Lord is not slack concerning his promise, as some men count slackness; but is longsuffering to us-ward, not willing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance. KJV
19 V. Why Does God Forgive? a. Forgiveness is an act of mercy in which he graciously pardons the offender. Mercy and grace flow from the character of God who loves all men, and seeks to be reconciled with them, which is why he has made a provision for their forgiveness. Gen 22:8 And Abraham said, My son, God will provide himself a lamb for a burnt offering: so they went both of them together. KJV
20 V. Why Does God Forgive b. In his mercy, God desires reconciliation. The reconciliation is mutual, i.e., it is not only that of sinners toward God, but also and most importantly that of God toward sinners. 2 Cor 5:19 that God was reconciling the world to himself in Christ, not counting men's sins against them. NIV c. This reconciliation is effected by the sin-offering he himself provided, so that consistently with the other attributes of his character, for instance his justice, his love might flow forth in all its fullness of blessing toward men.
21 V. Why Does God Forgive d. However, his forgiveness is conditional. He forgives freely all those who comply with the condition of repentance and abandonment of sin, yet this does not negate the necessity of atonement, guilt must be punished in order for justice to prevail. e. The meaning of the word at-one-ment, i.e., the state of being at one or being reconciled, so that atonement is reconciliation. Thus it is used to denote the effect which flows from the death of Christ.
22 V. Why Does God Forgive f. By the atonement of Christ we generally mean his work by which he expiated our sins. Expiation is to show that you are sorry for the offending behavior by doing something or accepting punishment. g. To make atonement is to do that in which alienation ceases and reconciliation is brought about. Christ's mediatorial work and sufferings are the ground or efficient cause of reconciliation with God.
23 V. Why Does God Forgive h. The effect of the atonement on man is to reconcile him, attract him, to God. It shows him God's active love for man, which forgives, in that it removes sin completely and takes away the estranging factor between them. 1 John 4:19 We love him, because he first loved us. KJV i. Our guilt is expiated by the punishment which Christ our vicar bore, and thus God is rendered propitious (favorably disposed toward the sinner), i.e., it is now consistent with his justice to manifest his love to transgressors.
24 V. Why Does God Forgive j. As believers, when we begin to comprehend the depth and detail of what is involved in securing the forgiveness of God for our wanton sinfulness, the only appropriate response is to be overwhelmed with gratitude and awed by the extent of his love toward us.
a. Read Isaiah chapter 6:1-5 and put yourself in the picture that Isaiah depicts for us. As you do so, consider the fact that the only basis for your being present in the throne room of God is the meritorious work that Christ performed on your behalf. 25 VI. Application
b. Now read Revelation chapter 4 with the images created by Isaiah and John fresh in your mind compose a prayer of thanksgiving and praise to the Lord Jesus Christ for his unspeakable mercy and grace which has redeemed your soul. 26 VI. Application