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Early American Settlements

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Presentation on theme: "Early American Settlements"— Presentation transcript:

1 Early American Settlements
American Colonization

2 Why would anyone want to come here?
Profit Freedom of Religion Freedom from Tyranny Free Land

3 Roanoke, 1587 Sir Walter Raleigh tries to establish a colony in N. Carolina 117 people are living at the settlement, after 4 years no one is found This discourages others from colonizing the Americas

4 Jamestown, 1607 First permanent colony in the Americas
The Virginia Company is granted a charter. -Their goal was to seek gold, silver, and fur for profit

5 Reasons why Jamestown thrived
John Smith helped motivate colonists to do work so they could survive He managed to establish good relations with local tribal leader, and barter for corn In winter of 1609, however, Smith returned to England and the time became known as “the starving time.”

6 Jamestown Politics Economics
Tobacco: a staple crop that helped investors gain much of the profit they desired Private Land Ownership: Englishmen were encouraged to move to the colony were they could receive land and tend to it on their own and make profits for themselves Government: Representative government created through the House of Burgesses (1619). The first legislative assembly of elected representative in N. America

7 Plymouth Colony, 1620 Background:
Back in the 1500’s King Henry 8, broke away from the Catholic Church and named the state church Angelican. Many people were unhappy with the change, both Catholics and Protestants. Reason for leaving England: religious freedom - They were Separatists who called themselves Pilgrims because their journey had a religious purpose (not all members of the Plymouth colony were religious)

8 Founding of the Plymouth Colony
The Mayflower carried 102 passengers to the Americas They ended up north of their original plan and established the Plymouth colony Mayflower Compact (1620): compact promised to honor the King of England and to obey laws passed for the good of the colony Mayflower compact was a necessary step in the development of representative government in America

9 Massachusetts Bay Colony, 1629
The Massachusetts Bay was founded in Boston by Puritans seeking religious tolerance John Winthrop, governor of the colony Great Migration 1630’s-15,000 puritans came to MA seeking escape from persecution Winthrop pushed many out because of his intolerance or differences

10 Connecticut Thomas Hooker-founded Hartford
-brought his congregation with him from Massachusetts -Combined with two other towns, he helped create the colony of Connecticut Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

11 Rhode Island Roger Williams
Felt positive about religious freedom & not taking land from natives Was banished from Massachusetts in 1635 Created a safe place for dissenters

12 Types of Colonies Royal colony: a colony governed directly by the crown through a governor and council appointed by it Proprietary colony: a colony granted to some individual or individuals with full governing rights

13 Middle Colonies

14 New York Given to the Duke of York by King Charles II
Colonists were promised: - freedom of religion - to keep their property Duke appoints governor and council to direct affairs of the colony, as a result of the swell in population After much resistance from New York colonists, the English government allows them to elect their own legislature

15 New Jersey Given to both Lord Berkeley and Sir Carteret by the Duke of York Colonists were offered: Tracts of land Freedom of religion Trial by jury And a representative assembly Eventually the land passed back into the hands of the King, because they did not make the profits they had hoped for. However, the colonists still made their own local laws

16 Pennsylvania William Penn acquired the land after an old debt was settled by King Charles Belonged to Society of Friends, aka Quakers Charter of Liberties , granted colonists the right to elect representatives

17 Delaware Delaware was created from the southernmost part of Pennsylvania, the Three Lower Counties Charter of Privileges allowed the lower counties to form own legislature Thereafter, they functioned as their own separate colony, supervised by Pennsylvania’s governor

18 Southern Colonies

19 Maryland Founded by Lord Baltimore as a haven for persecuted Catholics
Colony named after Queen Henrietta Maria or the Virgin Mary Maryland forced colonist to plant more than just tobacco Aristocrats vs. Farmers Indentured Servants vs. Slaves

20 Mason-Dixon Line The boundary between Maryland and Pennsylvania
Rivalry between Calvert & Penn Families Settled by two astronomers Scientists laid out boundary stones with the family’s crest on them

21 Act of Toleration Passed in 1649
Designed to protect anyone from making Maryland a Protestant colony (to protect Catholics) It gave both sects of Christianity the right to freely worship 1692, the Protestant-controlled assembly named the state church Anglican and placed same rules on Catholics that existed in England

22 North Carolina Founded by 8 prominent aristocrats
Settled by farmers from Virginia’s backcountry They did not have a good harbor, relied on Virginia ports to export goods for trade Crops includes Tobacco, forest products

23 South Carolina More prosperous than the north, due to fertile land and good harbor Rice was a leading crop in the wet coastal lowlands Indigo More than half people in S. Carolina were enslaved

24 Georgia Last of the British colonies in America
Led by James Olgethorpe It was a debtor colony, were they could make a fresh start Colony was also a buffer between the other colonies and Spanish Florida Highest percentage of non-british persons than any other colony

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