2 LT1: Political Foundations Belief in a written constitution (Mayflower Compact and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut)Legitimacy through written laws and the description of how self-government will workGod was included in these documentsDespite this fact, they were examples of Enlightenment political thoughtSelf government (to an extent) from the start (House of Burgesses and the New England Town Meetings)The wealthy landowners, religious leaders, or appointed governors still controlled most important decisions, but elections within those positions did take placeM and M Theory
3 LT2: Religious Development New England – Puritans (largest denomination in the colonies)Middle Colonies – very diverse: Catholics, Puritans (especially those banished), Anglicans, Quakers, etc.Southern Colonies – Anglican (second largest denomination)
5 Puritans New England, Massachusetts Bay Colony The “city upon a hill” quote from John WinthropStrict moral code and the requirement of profession of faithChurch was the focal point of each townThough they sought religious freedom in coming to America, they were not tolerant of other faiths (or even slight differences within their faith)Roger WilliamsAnne HutchinsonProsperity contributed to their declineTheir success both allowed them to prosper, then pulled them away from original purpose
7 Anglicans (Church of England) Virginia (Chesapeake region)Though membership may have been required, this requirement was . . .Resented because of strong individual spiritEmbraced because it brought status (official Church of England and a connection to the Crown)Less of a focus than Puritan faith in New EnglandChurches were more scattered due to the settlement pattern of the farming (plantation) SouthA family affair
8 The Great Awakening Religious revival era of the mid-1700s Johnathon Edwards and George Whitefield felt people were becoming too concerned with worldly matters (remember the Puritan decline)This is the Age of EnlightenmentField preaching brought thousands to the “hellfire and brimstone” sermonsIt democratized religion in AmericaWomen and African-Americans were involved more than everIt split churches, but this provided more options for peopleGod became closer to the believer- personal experienceThis religious challenge to authority helped foster political challenges to authorityTherefore, it can be viewed as a contributing factor to the American Revolution
10 LT3: EnlightenmentPhilosophers of Europe were not just challenging religion with science, they were challenging the old political ideas by introducing new theories of governmentChallenging authority across the boardDivine Right gave way to natural rights, consent of the governed, and self-government
11 Thomas Paine’s Common Sense and Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence Connection to Britain is no longer neededBritain has violated the rights of its citizens (natural rights)Therefore, we have the “right of revolution” – to overthrown an unjust governmentThe colonists had a rebellious spirit (LT4)Consent of the governed is the only legitimate government
12 LT4: Rebellion was a Tradition Bacon’s, Shays’s, and Whiskey Rebellions were sparked by economic and political grievances against authority that was perceived as arbitrary and distantTurner’s Rebellion epitomized the great nightmare of the antebellum slavocracy- a large-scale slave revolt
13 Bacon’s RebellionVirginia frontiersman are upset that the government in Virginia is not protecting them from IndiansRebellion burns Jamestown, but ultimately the government crushes itOutcomesBritish government realized the perils of the poor white classIndentured servitude dwindles and black slave labor increasesCan be seen as the first true challenge to the British government’s authority (100 yrs. before the Revolution)
14 Shays’s Rebellion – 1787Massachusetts farmers are in debt (new states were increasing taxes to acquire money after the Revolution)Those unable to pay are thrown in debtor’s prisonShays’s leads attacks on the courts because of these “unfair” taxes and an unresponsive, distant government and the state militia is called outOutcomesThe government feared rebellions might spread to other statesThere was a call to “alter” the Articles of Confederation to provide a stronger authority in matters of national interest and the economy
15 Whiskey RebellionTaxation on those who produced whiskey (vital economic good)Farmers attack tax collectors in protest (unfair taxation – remember the Revolution)Washington’s force disperses the rebelsOutcomeAn early test of the government’s ability to taxAn early test of the government’s ability to maintain law and order
16 Turner’s RebellionSlave revolt – physical assault on white southernersTurner was caught and executedOutcomeThe South imposes harsher restrictions on the slave population and the slave codeThe South more passionately defends slaveryHelps inflame abolition movement in the North
17 LT5: The Ideas and Principles of the Articles and the Constitution Coming out of the Revolution, America wanted a National Government that was weak.Colonists had viewed themselves as Virginians, New Yorkers, etc. first, and then Americans. Colonial, and then state, pride came first.They created a loose confederation (league of friendship) with a weak national government – The Articles of ConfederationIt failed.
18 The Articles of Confederation SuccessesIt was a national government that was based on the principles the founders and colonists fought forThe Northwest OrdinancesFailures
19 Virginia Plan called for a strong central government with three distinctive elements National Supremacy above state sovereigntyThe people could directly vote for some national leadersThe central government would be made up of three distinct branches: a bicameral legislature, an executive, and a judiciaryThe New Jersey Plan would continue more along the lines of how Congress already operated under the ArticlesThis plan called for a unicameral legislature with the one vote per state formula still in place
20 Antifederalists opposed the Constitution The supporters of the proposed Constitution called themselves Federaliststhe Constitution was required in order to safeguard the liberty and independence that the American Revolution had createdAntifederalists opposed the ConstitutionThey believed that the greatest threat to the future of the United States lay in the government's potential to become corrupt and seize more and more power
22 LT6: Political and Social Conflict in the Early 19th Century Rapid population growth and geographic expansion caused a great deal of conflictDemocracy began to be championed as an unqualified key to improving the countrySlavery and its expansionThe country's founders left no clear solution to the issue of slavery in the Constitution. Popular sovereignty, amendment, nullification, and secession were all discussed as possible remedies
24 Northwest Ordinances Division of the territory into states Formula for establishing these new states with representationEstablishment of religious freedom, the banning of slavery, and provisions for educationImportance:There is a plan to move westAmerica values education and sets up an orderly way to expandSlavery becomes an issue as we expand
25 Compromise of 1820(1) Missouri was admitted as a slave state and Maine (formerly part of Massachusetts) as free, and(2) except for Missouri, slavery was to be excluded from the Louisiana Purchase lands north of latitude 36°30′was criticized by many southerners because it established the principle that Congress could make laws regarding slavery;northerners, on the other hand, condemned it for acquiescing in the expansion of slavery
27 Compromise of 1850 North Gets South Gets California admitted as a free stateNo slavery restrictions in Utah or New Mexico territoriesSlave trade prohibited in Washington D.C.Slaveholding permitted in Washington D.C.Texas loses boundary dispute with New MexicoTexas gets $10 millionFugitive Slave Law
29 Who won and who lost in the deal? North seemed to gain the most. The balance of the Senate was now with the free states, although California often voted with the south on many issues in the 1850s.The major victory for the south was the Fugitive Slave Law.In the end, the north refused to enforce it.
30 Compromise of 1877 The end of 15 years of Reconstruction Hayes (R) “defeats Tilden (D)Military “occupation” endsNorth abandons the SouthToo long of a processMore pressing concerns out WestSouth is handed back over to Democratic RuleSegregated society continues and strengthensBlack underclass
33 LT7: Religious, Philosophical, and Social Movements of the 19th Century After establishing a new nation, America sought to make its own way – the American experimentGrounded in optimism and individualismEven when people begin to see flaws in the American experiment, they sought new thoughts and ideasAnd many times this created serious conflicts
35 Most of the original utopias were created for religious purposes. Gradually, utopian communities came to reflect social perfectibility rather than religious puritySelf-reliance, optimism, individualism and a disregard for external authority and traditionThese experiments ultimately disintegrated
37 Because religion was separated from the control of political leaders, a series of religious revivals swept the United States from the 1790s and into the 1830sbest known for its large camp meetingsThe evangelical impulse at the heart of the Second Great Awakening shared some of the egalitarian thrust of Revolutionary idealsThe new evangelical movement, however, placed greater emphasis on humans' ability to change their situation for the betterSecond Great Awakening also included greater public roles for white women and much higher African-American participation
38 TranscendentalismPeople, men and women equally, have knowledge about themselves and the world around them that "transcends" or goes beyond what they can see, hear, taste, touch or feelPeople can trust themselves to be their own authority on what is rightThe transcendentalists led the celebration of the American experiment as one of individualism and self-relianceImagination was better than reason, creativity was better than theory, and action was better than contemplationRalph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Walt Whitman
39 TemperanceBy 1830, the average American over 15 years old consumed nearly seven gallons of pure alcohol a year – three times as much as we drink today – and alcohol abuse (primarily by men) was wreaking havoc on the lives of many, particularly in an age when women had few legal rights and were utterly dependent on their husbands for sustenance and supportThe temperance movement, rooted in America's Protestant churches, first urged moderation, then encouraged drinkers to help each other to resist temptation, and ultimately demanded that local, state, and national governments prohibit alcohol outright
40 Abolition Early Abolitionists called for a gradual end to slavery The new Abolitionists thought differently. They saw slavery as a blight on America that must be brought to an end immediately.They sent petitions to Congress and the states, campaigned for office, and flooded the south with inflammatory literatureWilliam Lloyd GarrisonFrederick DouglassSojourner TruthUncle Tom’s Cabin
41 LT8: Political and Social Impact of Territorial Expansion Western migration had become central to the American way of life.This land offered the promise of independence and prosperityManifest destiny touched on issues of religion, money, race, patriotism, and moralityPolitical Impact of ExpansionRepresentation for new statesSlavery in the territoriesThe west led the path by having no property requirements for votingSocial Impact of ExpansionIn the new western states, there was a greater level of equality among the masses than in the former English colonies. Land was readily available
43 Jefferson's plans for the nation depended upon western expansion and access to international markets for American farm productsThe most efficient route to market remained along waterways and access to New Orleans remained crucial for the western economy and its settlement.The belief that the future prosperity of the republic required the expansion of yeoman farmers in the west. . an "EMPIRE OF LIBERTY"Federalist oppositionWas it constitutional?
45 Lewis and Clark Expedition While trying to find a route across the continent, they were also expected to make detailed observations of the natural resources and geography of the westthey were to establish good relations with native groups in an attempt to disrupt British dominance of the lucrative Indian fur trade of the continental interior
46 The expansion of the nation caused major alterations in American life Companies begin to build roads (called turnpikes since they charged a fee), bridges, canalsOutright military conflict with native groups increasesA new capitalist economy enormously expands wealth and lays the foundation for the Industrial RevolutionA growing regional distinctiveness of American life emerges
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