Presentation on theme: "Chapter 22, Section 2: The Progressives"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 22, Section 2: The Progressives Main Idea: Progressive reformers worked to end political corruption and give voters greater power.
2 A. Reforming City Governments Cities became corrupt because, as they grew, politicians accepted money to give away service jobs. Bribes & corruption became common & widespread.Political Bosses were powerful politicians that controlled many local governments. They ran political machines that controlled services in cities in exchange for payoffs from businesses. They were popular with poor immigrants because they provided jobs & charity, which allowed them to continuously get reelected.Boss Tweed ran NYC in the 1860/70s and cheated the city out of over $100 million. He was eventually exposed by journalists such as Thomas Nast (political cartoonist) & fled to Spain, but was apprehended & sent to jail because he was recognized (cartoons).Good Government Leagues – goal was to replace corrupt officials with honest leaders.
4 Muckrakers and Reform Efforts “Let’s stop them damned pictures,” he said. “I don’t care so much what the papers write about – my constituents can’t read – but they can see pictures.” – Boss TweedMuckraker: Thomas Nast, cartoonist for Harper’s WeeklyReform: - Tweed was arrested
5 Muckrakers and Reform Efforts Problem: Corrupt city bosses, such as Boss (William) Tweed in NYC.With his 1873 conviction behind him, Tweed was sued by New York State for $6 million. Held in debtor's prison until he could post half that amount as bail, the former boss had few options. Still wealthy, his prison cell was fairly luxurious. Yet Tweed was determined to escape. Fleeing to Spain, he worked as a common seaman on a Spanish ship until recognized by his likeness to a Nast cartoon & captured. Extradited to New York, William Marcy Tweed died in debtor's prison on April 12, 1878.Tweed-le-dee and Tilden-dum, Thomas Nast, Artist, Illustration in Harper's Weekly, July 1, 1876.
6 B. The MuckrakersReformers used the press to turn public opinion against corruption. Reporters described how corruption led to poor city services.Muckrakers – crusading journalists who “raked the dirt” to expose wrong-doing. They helped change public opinion to demand change & reform.Jacob Riis - photographed slum life & Child Labor (How the Other Half Lives)Ida Tarbell - wrote articles about big business (particularly Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Co.)Upton Sinclair – wrote The Jungle, a novel that depicted the terrible conditions in the meat packing industryLincoln Steffens – wrote The Shame of the Cities , about corruption in city governments
11 C. The ProgressivesProgressives was the term that reformers called themselves (forward-thinking people who wanted to improve American life)is known as the Progressive EraThey were never a single, united group with one goal. They were many groups & individuals with many causes & goals that believed that society’s problems could be solved. They fought for public interest (good of the people)Progressives valued education. They wanted schools to promote reform & teach democratic values by example (ask questions & work together to solve problems)
12 PROGRESSIVISM Muckrackers Suffragettes Temperance Popul ists M i d c l a s s W o m e nCivi l RightsLaborUnions12
13 D. Political ReformsGov. Robert “Battling Bob” La Follette & his Wisconsin Idea: “The will of the people shall bethe law of the land.”Empowering voters (give them more power):Primary – voters choose their party’scandidate for the general electionInitiative – gave voters right to put a billbefore a state legislatureReferendum – allowed voters to vote directly on a billRecall – allowed voters to remove an elected official from office due to incompetence (not same as impeachment)2 new amendments:16th – gave Congress power to levy an income tax (graduated – tax diff. rates based on ability to pay)17th – allowed for direct election of senators (used to be elected by state legislatures, who were controlled by special interests)
14 Progressive Political Reforms BeforeAfterParty leaders pick candidates for state and local officesVoters select their party’s candidatesPRIMARYOnly members of state legislatures can introduce billsVoters can propose bills to the legislatureINITIATIVEOnly legislators pass lawsVoters can vote on bills directlyREFERENDUMOnly courts or legislature can remove corrupt officialsVoters can remove elected officials from officeRECALL