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Domestic Crisis and the ‘Struggle of the Orders’.

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1 Domestic Crisis and the ‘Struggle of the Orders’

2 The City from M. Grant, History of Rome

3 A Roman Patrician with Maiores from Cary and Scullard, A History of Rome

4 Towards a Methodology for Reconstructing Early Roman Society (K. Raaflaub) Comprehensive Approach: recurrent themes and patterns in diverse sources are probably historically significant (that is, we should not limit ourselves to history writing, or even literary evidence, for that matter) Comprehensive Approach: recurrent themes and patterns in diverse sources are probably historically significant (that is, we should not limit ourselves to history writing, or even literary evidence, for that matter) Comparative Approach: test hypotheses for early Rome against fuller records of societies that passed through similar socio-economic historical processes (for example, early Greece) Comparative Approach: test hypotheses for early Rome against fuller records of societies that passed through similar socio-economic historical processes (for example, early Greece) Archaeology: seems to confirm literary tradition of socio-economic crisis in 5th-century BCE Rome: cessation of temple-construction and other public building Archaeology: seems to confirm literary tradition of socio-economic crisis in 5th-century BCE Rome: cessation of temple-construction and other public building

5 Interrelationship of Roman Foreign Policy and Internal Roman Politics “At the outbreak of the First Samnite War in 343, the plebeian leaders’ demand that one of the two consulships should always be theirs was still being determinedly resisted. By the end of the Second Samnite War in 304 this demand had long been taken for granted and a closed ‘nobility’ had been formed that was so united that its members, patricians and plebeians alike, went into mourning when an upstart outsider of servile origin like Cn. Flavius was elected curule aedile over two ‘noble’ plebeians [see Livy, 9.46; Pliny, Natural History, 33.17].” E.T. Salmon, Samnium and the Samnites (Cambridge, 1967) 217

6 Twelve Tables: Table III “the creditor may bind [the debtor] either in stocks or in fetters; he may bind him with a weight of no more than fifteen pounds…Unless they make a settlement, debtors shall be held in bonds for sixty days. During that time they shall be brought before the praetor’s court…on the third market day they shall suffer capital punishment or be delivered up for sale abroad, across the Tiber. On the third market day the creditors shall cut pieces.”

7 Internal Crises: Patricians and Plebeians Patricians and non-Patricians (Plebeians) Patricians and non-Patricians (Plebeians) War as Palliative War as Palliative

8 Dionysius of Halicarnassus, “The following year [455 BCE]…was not of an even tenor but was varied and fraught with great events. For the internal struggles, which seemed to be already extinguished, were again stirred up by the tribunes; and some foreign wars sprang up, which, without being able to harm the commonwealth at all, did it a great service by banishing these struggles. For it had by now become a regular and customary thing for the city to be harmonious in war and to be at odds in peace. When all who assumed the consulship observed this, they regarded the appearance of any foreign war as an answer to prayer. And when the enemies were quiet, they themselves invented grievances and pretenses for wars, since they saw that wars made the commonwealth great and flourishing, and seditions humiliated and weak. Having come to this same conclusion, the consuls of that year resolved to lead an expedition against the enemy, apprehensive that idle and poor men might, because of peace, begin to raise disturbances.”

9 The Secession of the Plebeians (494 BCE ) and Patrician Concessions Creation of the Tribunate (494 BCE ) Creation of the Tribunate (494 BCE )  veto, intercessio, auxilium Plebeian Assembly (concilium plebis) Plebeian Assembly (concilium plebis) Plebeian Record Office Plebeian Record Office Plebeian Aediles Plebeian Aediles

10 Aventine: site of plebeian resistance

11 The Decemvirate and the Twelve Tables: ca BCE Non-elite Grievances: debt (nexum); land (ager publicus); military service (stipendia) Non-elite Grievances: debt (nexum); land (ager publicus); military service (stipendia) Primary Source: Livy, Primary Source: Livy, Publication of Ten Tables of Codified Law Publication of Ten Tables of Codified Law Two Supplements Added Two Supplements Added Further Plebeian Gains Further Plebeian Gains

12 Supplementary Laws (Tables XI and XII) Whatever the people has last ordained shall be held as binding by law. Whatever the people has last ordained shall be held as binding by law. Intermarriage shall not take place between patricians and plebeians Intermarriage shall not take place between patricians and plebeians

13 Legislative Skeleton: “Struggle of the Orders” 494 BCE: first secession of the plebeians; creation of the tribunate (2, 4 or 5 at first, later 10); Plebeian Council (concilium plebis) 494 BCE: first secession of the plebeians; creation of the tribunate (2, 4 or 5 at first, later 10); Plebeian Council (concilium plebis) 454 BCE: Aternian-Tarpeian legislation fixes maximum fine a magistrate could impose 454 BCE: Aternian-Tarpeian legislation fixes maximum fine a magistrate could impose ca. 450 BCE: Decemvirate and Twelve Tables ca. 450 BCE: Decemvirate and Twelve Tables 449 BCE: Valerio-Horatian legislation makes decisions of Plebeian Council (concilium plebis) law 449 BCE: Valerio-Horatian legislation makes decisions of Plebeian Council (concilium plebis) law 445 BCE: Canuleian law allows intermarriage between patricians and plebeians (conubium) 445 BCE: Canuleian law allows intermarriage between patricians and plebeians (conubium) 367 BCE: Licinian-Sextian legislation addresses debt; limits holding of ager publicus (?); demands one plebeian consul 367 BCE: Licinian-Sextian legislation addresses debt; limits holding of ager publicus (?); demands one plebeian consul 326 BCE: Poetelian-Papirian law abolishes nexum; debtor can’t pledge person 326 BCE: Poetelian-Papirian law abolishes nexum; debtor can’t pledge person 300 BCE: Valerian law protects citizens by right of appeal (provocatio) 300 BCE: Valerian law protects citizens by right of appeal (provocatio) 300 BCE: Ogulnian law opens priesthoods to plebeians 300 BCE: Ogulnian law opens priesthoods to plebeians 287 BCE: Hortensian law makes decisions of Plebeian Council law 287 BCE: Hortensian law makes decisions of Plebeian Council law

14 Temple in the Forum Boarium

15 Voting was the formal mechanism leading to the contested consulate (from Grant, History of Rome )

16 Curia Iulia-The Julian Senate House

17 Cui Bono? Troubled Harmony (?) Codification of Law (the Twelve Tables): “a measure to ensure aristocratic predominance;…an attempt to stabilize the political and social status quo, which was being seriously threatened by social unrest” (W. Eder, in Social Struggles in Archaic Rome, pg. 263) Codification of Law (the Twelve Tables): “a measure to ensure aristocratic predominance;…an attempt to stabilize the political and social status quo, which was being seriously threatened by social unrest” (W. Eder, in Social Struggles in Archaic Rome, pg. 263) Patricio-Plebeian Aristocracy (Licinian-Sextian legislation of 367 BCE): Patricio-Plebeian Aristocracy (Licinian-Sextian legislation of 367 BCE):  “A new nobility arose to which only a few plebeians were admitted, and which was as dominant as the patricians had been. Its economic interests and oligarchic sentiments were no different. The order of society was basically unchanged. The old social conflicts were to reappear, but it was harder for the poor to find champions, once the political ambitions of the rich plebeians had been satisfied” (P.A. Brunt, Social Conflicts in the Roman Republic, pp )

18 Readings for Next Meeting Livy, Rome and Italy, Livy, Rome and Italy, Oakley, “Roman Conquest of Italy,” in War and Society in Republican Rome, 9-37 Oakley, “Roman Conquest of Italy,” in War and Society in Republican Rome, 9-37

19 Questions for Readings Consider Livy’s treatments of the climactic battles at Sentinum and especially at Aquilonia at the end of Book 10. Is this sensationalist, dramatic history? Consider Livy’s treatments of the climactic battles at Sentinum and especially at Aquilonia at the end of Book 10. Is this sensationalist, dramatic history? Consider the interrelationship between Roman foreign policy and Roman domestic affairs in Book 10. Consider the interrelationship between Roman foreign policy and Roman domestic affairs in Book 10. What position does Oakley take on the reliability of Livy as an historical source? What position does Oakley take on the reliability of Livy as an historical source?

20 Assignments for Next Meeting Individual Report on Livy’s treatment of the final phases of the Samnite Wars, with a special focus on the speeches in the History Individual Report on Livy’s treatment of the final phases of the Samnite Wars, with a special focus on the speeches in the History Individual Report on Oakley and the Roman conquest of Livy. Compare Oakley’s reconstruction with Livy’s narrative Individual Report on Oakley and the Roman conquest of Livy. Compare Oakley’s reconstruction with Livy’s narrative  Reports should run approximately 15 minutes


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