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International Banking: Reserves, Debt & Risk Chapter 17 Copyright © 2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "International Banking: Reserves, Debt & Risk Chapter 17 Copyright © 2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 International Banking: Reserves, Debt & Risk Chapter 17 Copyright © 2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

2 Demand for International Reserves dependent on: 1)monetary value of international transactions 2)disequilibrium that can arise in balance of payment positions 3)speed and strength of balance of payments adjustment mechanisms 4)institutional framework of the world economy In theory there would be no need for international reserves with freely floating exchange rates.

3 With Fixed Exchange Rates o assume an increase in imports increases the demand for pounds from D 0 to D 1 o if the U.S. has a fixed rate at $2 Fed must supply 100 pounds o effect would be an increase in supply to restore exchange rate

4 With Managed Float o assume again an increase in imports increases the demand for pounds from D 0 to D 1 o if the upper limit for float is $2.25 Fed must supply 40 pounds o effect would be an increase in supply restoring rate of $2.25

5 Other Determinants of Demand o automatic adjustment mechanisms: nation’s propensity to enact policies such as tariffs, quotas, and subsidies reduce its need for international reserves o economic policies: a greater level of international coordination through such organizations as IMF and EU reduces the need for international reserves o world prices & income: rising prices, income and wealth inflate value of transactions increasing the need for international reserves

6 Supply of International Reserves Borrowed Reserves foreign nations foreign financial institutions international agencies Owned Reserves foreign currencies gold special drawing rights Total Supply

7 Foreign Currencies to finance international transactions were UK pound and U.S. dollar o liquidity problem – result of payment deficits position for U.S. while on gold exchange standard o largest share of reserves consists of holdings of national currencies o through 1900s two currencies commonly held

8 International Gold Standard o gold served directly as international means of payment o governments agreed to convert currency into gold at fixed rate o discipline of gold – prevented monetary authorities from producing excessive amount of paper money o 1815 to 1913 gold decreased from 33% to 10% of aggregate money supply o Great Depression caused nations to abandon gold standard

9 Gold Exchange Standard o IMF established system of fixed exchange rates with gold as primary reserve asset o gold as international unit of account o member nations agreed to state values of currencies in terms of gold or the gold content of U.S. dollar o dollar-gold system – coexistence of dollar and gold as international reserve assets o viable system as long as gold stocks of U.S. were large relative to dollar liabilities abroad

10 Demonetization of Gold o 1960s supply of foreign held dollars exceeded U.S. stock of gold o 1968 two-tier gold system official tier at which central banks could buy and sell gold private market in which gold could be traded at free market price o 1971 Nixon suspended commitment to buy and sell gold at $35 o 1975 official price of gold abolished as unit of account for international monetary system

11 Special Drawing Rights o today SDRs have limited use as reserve assets o serve as unit of account for IMF o some nations peg their currencies to the SDR o established as international reserve asset o value defined as a basket of currencies [dollar, yen, pound & euro]

12 Borrowed Reserves o IMF Drawings – transactions by which the IMF makes foreign currency loans to member nations with balance of payment deficits o General Agreements to Borrow – ten leading industrial nations agreement to temporarily supplement IMF reserves; once loans are repaid reserves revert back to original levels o Swap Agreements – bilateral agreements between central banks for temporary exchange of currencies

13 International Lending Risk o credit risk - probability that interest or principal will not be repaid larger risk results in higher interest rate assessing credit risk on international loans more difficult o country risk - probability that political developments will impact international investment o currency risk – economic risk associated with currency appreciation or depreciation; increased if hedging not possible or exchange controls exist

14 Problems of International Debt o concern that volume of lending insufficient particularly with respect to developing nations o excessive international lending created repayment problems during global recession in early 1980s o debt service/export ratio – interest and principal payments as a percentage of export earnings indicating: interest rate nation pays on its debt growth in exports of goods & services

15 Debt Servicing Difficulties o reasons for difficulties: improper macroeconomic policies leading to balance of payments deficit excessive borrowing or unfavorable terms uncontrollable economic events o options: cease repayment service debt at all costs debt rescheduling emergency loans from IMF with conditionality

16 Reducing Exposure to Developing Nation Debt o loan sales – sell to other banks in secondary market for less than face value o debt buyback – government of debtor nation buys loan from bank at discount o debt for debt swaps – bank exchanges loans for securities issued by debtor nation’s government at discount o debt/equity swaps – bank sells loans at discount to debtor nation’s government for local currency used to finance equity investment

17 Debt Reduction & Forgiveness o debt reduction – voluntary agreement reducing portion of debtor nation’s debt service negotiating modification in terms and conditions of contract debt/equity swaps or debt buybacks o debt forgiveness – creditor’s elimination of contractual obligations of debtor nation write-offs of debt abrogation of interest obligations o advocates argue elimination of debt service will lead to growth in developing nations

18 Eurodollar Market o eurodollars – bank deposited liabilities denominated in U.S. dollars in banks outside U.S. though not necessarily in Europe o free from regulation by host country o competitive advantage relative to domestic deposits o substantial growth since 1950 because of greater freedom from regulation o eliminate the risk associated with converting from one currency to another

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