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Slide 10-1. Slide 10-2 InsolvencyLiquidation and Reorganization Insolvency—Liquidation and Reorganization Advanced Accounting, Fourth Edition 1010.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 10-1. Slide 10-2 InsolvencyLiquidation and Reorganization Insolvency—Liquidation and Reorganization Advanced Accounting, Fourth Edition 1010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 10-1

2 Slide 10-2 InsolvencyLiquidation and Reorganization Insolvency—Liquidation and Reorganization Advanced Accounting, Fourth Edition 1010

3 Slide Distinguish between a Chapter 7 and a Chapter 11 bankruptcy Describe the five priority categories of unsecured claims and list the order in which they are settled Distinguish between a voluntary and involuntary bankruptcy petition Distinguish among fully secured, partially secured, and unsecured claims of creditors Describe contractual agreements that the debtor and its creditors may enter into outside of formal bankruptcy proceedings to resolve the debtor’s insolvent position. Learning Objectives

4 Slide 10-4 InsolvencyInsolvency When a business becomes insolvent, it generally has three possible courses of action: 1.Debtor and its creditors may enter into a contractual agreement, outside bankruptcy; 2.Debtor or its creditors may file a bankruptcy petition, after which the debtor is liquidated under Chapter 7 of the Bankruptcy Reform Act; or 3.Debtor or its creditors may file a petition for reorganization under Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Reform Act.

5 Slide 10-5 Insolvency means that a debtor has more current liabilities than current assets. Review: False InsolvencyInsolvency

6 Slide 10-6 Contractual Agreements LO 5 Contractual agreements. A business that is unable to pay its obligations may reach an accommodation with its creditors. Possibilities generally include: 1.An extension of payment periods. 2.Composition agreements. 3.Formation of a creditors’ committee. 4.Voluntary assignment of assets.

7 Slide 10-7 Contractual Agreements LO 5 Contractual agreements. Extension of Payment Periods Statement of Financial Accounting Standard No. 15 [ASC ] Provides that where a debt restructuring involves only a modification of terms of payment, the debtor should account for the restructuring prospectively and not change the carrying amount of the payable, unless the carrying amount exceeds the total future cash payments of principal and interest specified by the new terms. No gain is recognized.

8 Slide 10-8 Contractual Agreements LO 5 Contractual agreements. Composition Agreements (Creditors Accept Less Than Full Amount) Creditors are often given some immediate cash payment, and the amount of the remaining debts and their interest rates are renegotiated. Formation of a Creditors’ Committee Committee is responsible for managing the debtor’s business affairs for the period during which plans are developed to rehabilitate, reorganize, or liquidate the business.

9 Slide 10-9 Contractual Agreements LO 5 Contractual agreements. Voluntary Assignment of Assets A debtor may elect to place its property under the control of a trustee for the benefit of its creditors. Any proceeds remaining after payment of the creditors, are returned to the debtor.

10 Slide BankruptcyBankruptcy Provisions of the Bankruptcy Reform Act apply to individuals, corporations, and partnerships, as well as to municipalities seeking voluntary relief from their creditors. A business unable to pay its obligations, may attempt to negotiate with its creditors. If an agreement cannot be reached, a legal petition for bankruptcy will be initiated by either the  debtor (a voluntary petition) or its  creditors (an involuntary petition). LO 3 Voluntary vs. involuntary petitions.

11 Slide BankruptcyBankruptcy LO 3 Voluntary vs. involuntary petitions. Voluntary Petitions A debtor may file a voluntary petition with a bankruptcy court for;  liquidation under Chapter 7 or for  reorganization under Chapter 11. Filing a voluntary petition constitutes an order for relief. The bankruptcy petition (either voluntary or involuntary) is an official form that initiates bankruptcy proceedings and establishes an estate consisting of the debtor’s assets.

12 Slide BankruptcyBankruptcy LO 3 Voluntary vs. involuntary petitions. Involuntary Petitions Creditors initiate the action by filing a petition for liquidation or reorganization with the bankruptcy court. The bankruptcy court will generally enter an order for relief against the debtor only if evidence indicates that the debtor, in fact, has not been paying its debts as they become due.

13 Slide BankruptcyBankruptcy LO 4 Secured and unsecured creditors. Secured and Unsecured Creditors Secured creditors are those whose claims are secured by liens or pledges of specific assets. If the proceeds from the sale of a pledged asset(s) exceed the secured claim, the excess proceeds are available for distribution to unsecured creditors.

14 Slide Voluntary bankruptcy petitions may be filed under either Chapter 7 or Chapter 11 of the Reform Act. Review: True BankruptcyBankruptcy LO 4 Secured and unsecured creditors.

15 Slide Unsecured creditors with priority will receive full satisfaction before secured creditors are paid. Review: False BankruptcyBankruptcy LO 4 Secured and unsecured creditors.

16 Slide Liquidation (Chapter 7) A voluntary or involuntary petition for liquidation may be filed under Chapter 7 of the Reform Act. Upon filing, the bankruptcy court must decide whether to accept or dismiss the petition.  Dismissals occur infrequently.  Debtor may dispute an involuntary petition.  If accepted,  an order for relief is entered and  the bankruptcy court will appoint an interim trustee until a permanent trustee is selected. LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 7.

17 Slide Reorganization Under Reform Act (Chapter 11) Creditors of an insolvent debtor may believe their interests would be served by rehabilitating or reorganizing the debtor. In such a case: Creditors and debtor may agree to a plan for reorganization. Debtor or creditors may prefer to file with the bankruptcy court a petition for reorganization under Chapter 11 of the Reform Act. LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11.

18 Slide Reorganization Under Reform Act (Chapter 11) LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11. Fresh Start Accounting and Quasi Reorganization When firms emerge from bankruptcy, SOP 90-7 [ASC ] provides for fresh start accounting.  Assets and liabilities are reported at fair values.  Beginning retained earnings is reported at zero. Two conditions must exist:  Fair value of assets must be less than the post liabilities and allowed claims, and  Original owners must own less than 50% of the voting stock after reorganization.

19 Slide Reorganization Under Reform Act (Chapter 11) LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11. Fresh Start Accounting and Quasi Reorganization Quasi reorganization Per Accounting Research Bulletin No. 43 [ASC ], three steps are required: 1.Authorization from creditors and stockholders is required. 2.All assets are revalued to fair values with losses recorded in retained earnings. 3.The deficit in retained earnings is eliminated by charging to (reducing) paid-in capital.

20 Slide Reorganization Under Reform Act (Chapter 11) Accounting for Reorganization – Troubled Debt Debt may be restructured in any one (or a combination) of the following methods: 1.The debtor may transfer assets in full settlement of the payable. 2.The debtor may give an equity interest in its firm in full settlement of the payable. 3.The creditor may modify terms of the payable. LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11.

21 Slide Reorganization Under Reform Act (Chapter 11) LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11. Transfer of Assets A debtor that transfers assets to a creditor in full settlement of a payable recognizes a gain. The gain is measured by the excess of the carrying value of the payable over the fair value of the assets transferred. The difference between the fair value and the carrying amount of the assets transferred is a gain or loss and is reported as a component of net income for the period of transfer. Accounting for Reorganization – Troubled Debt

22 Slide Reorganization Under Reform Act (Chapter 11) LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11. Grant of an Equity Interest A debtor that issues an equity interest in its firm to a creditor in full settlement of a payable shall account for the equity interest at its fair value. Difference between the fair value of the equity interest issued and the carrying amount of the payable is reported as a gain on restructuring. Debtor determines its gain based on undiscounted cash flows. Accounting for Reorganization – Troubled Debt

23 Slide Reorganization Under Reform Act (Chapter 11) LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11. Modification of Terms A debtor, in a troubled debt restructuring involving only modification of terms of a payable, accounts for the effects of the restructuring prospectively from the time of restructuring. The carrying value of the payable is not changed at the time of restructuring unless the carrying value exceeds the total future cash payments specified by the new terms. Accounting for Reorganization – Troubled Debt

24 Slide In a reorganization involving a transfer of assets, the debtor will recognize a gain on restructuring measured by the excess of the carrying value of the payable settled over the book value of the assets transferred. Review: False Reorganization Under Reform Act (Chapter 11) LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11.

25 Slide E10-3: Bar Company, which is in financial difficulty and in the process of a voluntary reorganization, has agreed to transfer to a creditor a copyright it owns in full settlement of a $150,000 note payable and $15,000 in accrued interest. The copyright, which originally cost $100,000, has an accumulated amortization balance of $55,000 and a current fair value of $95,000. Required: a. Prepare the journal entries on Bar Company’s books to record the transfer of the copyright. Reorganization – Transfer of Assets LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11.

26 Slide Copyright 50,000 Gain on Transfer of Assets 50,000 Revalue copyright to fair value. $95,000 – ($100,000 - $55,000) Notes Payable 150,000 Accrued Interest Payable15,000 Accumulated Amortization – Copyright55,000 Copyright ($100,000 + $50,000) 150,000 Gain on Debt Restructuring70,000 E10-3 a. Prepare the journal entries on Bar Company’s books to record the transfer of the copyright. Reorganization – Transfer of Assets LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11.

27 Slide The gain on transfer of assets ($50,000) should be reported as a separate component (assuming material in amount) of operating income; the gain on restructuring ($70,000) should also be reported as a separate component of operating income. E10-3 b. Explain the proper treatment of any gain or loss recognized in (A). Reorganization – Transfer of Assets LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11.

28 Slide Loss on Transfer of Assets 15,000 Copyright 15,000 Revalue copyright to fair value. $30,000 – ($100,000 - $55,000) Notes Payable 150,000 Accrued Interest Payable15,000 Accumulated Amortization – Copyright55,000 Copyright ($100,000 - $15,000) 85,000 Gain on Debt Restructuring ($165,000 - $30,000) 135,000 E10-3 c. Assuming the fair value of the copyright was $30,000, repeat the requirement in (A). Reorganization – Transfer of Assets LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11.

29 Slide E10-4: Lake Company, a major creditor of financially troubled Spain Company, has agreed to modify the terms of a debt owed to Lake Company. The debt consists of a $900,000, 12% note that is due currently along with accrued interest of $95,000. Lake Company agreed to extend the due date of the note and accrued interest for three years and to reduce the interest rate to 5% per annum (on both maturity value and accrued interest), with interest to be paid annually. Required: a. Should a gain on restructuring be recognized by Spain Company? Explain. Reorganization – Modification of Terms LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11.

30 Slide No gain should be recognized because the total future cash payments specified by the new terms of $1,144,250 ($995,000 carrying value plus 3 years’ interest at $49,750 per year) exceed the current carrying value of the debt, $995,000. E10-4 a. Should a gain on restructuring be recognized by Spain Company? Explain. LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11. Reorganization – Modification of Terms

31 Slide Note Payable 900,000 Accrued Interest Payable 95,000 Restructured Debt995,000 E10-4 b. Prepare the entry that should be made on Spain Company’s books on the date of restructure. LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11. Reorganization – Modification of Terms

32 Slide Restructuring gains that arise from troubled debt restructurings are reported by the debtor as extraordinary gains. Review: False Reorganization Under Reform Act (Chapter 11) LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11.

33 Slide Reorganization Under Reform Act (Chapter 11) LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11. A plan for reorganization must show that creditors will receive as much as if the debtor were liquidated. The Statement of Affairs is an accounting report that is designed to permit the user to determine:  the total expected amounts that could be realized on the disposition of the assets,  the priorities in the use of the realization proceeds in satisfying claims, and  the potential net deficiency that would result if the assets were realized and claims liquidated. The “Accounting” Statement of Affairs

34 Slide Reorganization Under Reform Act (Chapter 11) LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11. E10-7: Ball Company is facing bankruptcy proceedings. A balance sheet and other information are presented below: Ball Company Balance Sheet - June 30, 2009 Accounts receivable and inventory are each pledged as security on individual notes payable in the amount of $100,000 each.

35 Slide E10-7: Statement of Affairs Reorganization Under Reform Act (Chapter 11)

36 Slide E10-7: Statement of Affairs Reorganization Under Reform Act (Chapter 11) * ($255,000) loss - $130,400 gain = $124,600 deficiency

37 Slide E10-7: Deficiency Account Reorganization Under Reform Act (Chapter 11)

38 Slide The statement of affairs is a report designed to estimate the amount expected to be earned by a debtor company during the time period needed to complete a reorganization. Review: False Reorganization Under Reform Act (Chapter 11) LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11.

39 Slide Trustee Accounting and Reporting LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11. Trustee takes title to the debtor’s assets and is accountable to the court, the creditors, and other parties for the subsequent utilization or realization of the assets.  Trustee records the assets at their book values.  No existing liabilities are recorded by the trustee.  Payment of preexisting debts reduces the assets.

40 Slide Trustee Accounting and Reporting LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11. E10-9: TRX Company has been forced into receivership. The trustee has decided to open a new set of books to distinguish between transactions occurring before and after the appointment. The following account balances were reported on September 1, 2009: Required: Prepare journal entries to record the following on the trustee set of books.

41 Slide Cash 26,700 Accounts Receivable (old)130,400 Inventory191,900 Property and Equipment590,400 Allowance for Uncollectibles (old) 16,000 Accumulated Depreciation211,500 TRX Company – in Receivership * 711,900 * ($939,400 – $16,000 - $211,500) E10-9: Record the receipt of TRX Company assets. Trustee Accounting and Reporting LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11.

42 Slide Cash 31,500 Accounts Receivable (new)264,500 Sales 296,000 E10-9: 1. Sales were made in the amount of $296,000, of which $31,500 were cash sales. Trustee Accounting and Reporting LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11.

43 Slide E10-9: 2. Receivables were collected in the following amounts: Old receivables $ 76,800 New receivables 242,200 Trustee Accounting and Reporting LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11. Cash319,000 Accounts Receivable (old)76,800 Accounts Receivable (new)242,200

44 Slide E10-9: 3. Additional inventory was purchased on account in the amount of $127,500. Trustee Accounting and Reporting LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11. Purchases127,500 Accounts Payable (new)127,500

45 Slide E10-9: 4. Cash payments were made as follows: On old accounts payable $206,500 On new accounts payable 61,600 For operating expenses 46,000 For trustee fees 13,000 Trustee Accounting and Reporting LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11. TRX Company – in Receivership206,500 Accounts Payable (new)61,600 Operating Expenses46,000 Trustee Expenses13,000 Cash327,100

46 Slide E10-9: 5. Journal entries were made to record: a.Bad debt expense of $21,600, of which $8,600 related to new accounts receivable. Trustee Accounting and Reporting LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11. Bad Debt Expense21,600 Allowance for Uncollectibles (old)13,000 Allowance for Uncollectibles (new)8,600

47 Slide E10-9: 5. Journal entries were made to record: a.Bad debt expense of $21,600, of which $8,600 related to new accounts receivable. b.Depreciation expense of $32,400. c.Write-off of old accounts receivable of $21,000. Trustee Accounting and Reporting LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11. Depreciation expense32,400 Accumulated Depreciation32,400 Allowance for Uncollectibles (old)21,000 Account Receivable (old)21,000

48 Slide The court expects to receive periodic reports summarizing the realization and distribution activities of the trustee. The report, realization and liquidation account, has three main sections—assets, liabilities, and revenues and expenses. The asset section consists of four parts, illustrated as follows: Realization and Liquidation Account LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11. Assets to be realized Assets realized Assets acquired Assets not realized Assets

49 Slide The court expects to receive periodic reports summarizing the realization and distribution activities of the trustee. The report, realization and liquidation account, has three main sections—assets, liabilities, and revenues and expenses. The liabilities section consists of four parts, illustrated as follows: Realization and Liquidation Account LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11. Liabilities liquidated Liabilities to be liquidated Liabilities not liquidated Liabilities incurred Liabilities

50 Slide FASB issued exposure draft (Oct., 2008) on ‘Going Concern.’  Board decided to carry forward the going concern guidance from AU Sec. 341, subject to modifications to align with IFRSs.  IAS 1 requires that an entity consider “all available information about the future, which is at least, but is not limited to, twelve months from the end of the reporting period” when assessing whether the going concern assumption is appropriate.  Wording in IAS 1 with respect to the type of information that should be considered in making the going concern assessment (all available information about the future). Realization and Liquidation Account LO 7 Chapter 1 versus Chapter 11.

51 Slide Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein. CopyrightCopyright


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