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From NLP to Cognitive Computing Dr. Mauricio García.

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2 From NLP to Cognitive Computing Dr. Mauricio García


4 Jumping NLP Curves. Cambria & White, 2014 Time Syntactics Curve (Bag-of –Words) Semantics Curve (Bag-of –Concepts) Pragmatics Curve (Bag-of –Narratives) 195020002050 2100 NLP System performance


6 Answering complex questions requires more than keyword evidence explorer India In May 1898 India In May celebrated anniversary in Portugal In May, Gary arrived in India after he celebrated his anniversary in Portugal Portugal 400th anniversary celebrated Gary In May 1898 Portugal celebrated the 400th anniversary of this explorer’s arrival in India This evidence suggests “Gary” is the answer BUT the system must learn that keyword matching may be weak relative to other types of evidence arrived in arrival in Legend Keyword “Hit” Reference Text Answer Weak evidence Red Text Question: Supporting Evidence:

7 27th May 1498 Vasco da Gama landed in arrival in explorer India Para- phrases Geo- KB Date Match Stronger evidence can be much harder to find and score…  Search far and wide  Explore many hypotheses  Find judge evidence  Many inference algorithms On the 27th of May 1498, Vasco da Gama landed in Kappad Beach 400th anniversary Portugal May 1898 celebrated In May 1898 Portugal celebrated the 400th anniversary of this explorer’s arrival in India. Kappad Beach Legend Temporal Reasoning Reference Text Answer Statistical Paraphrasing GeoSpatial Reasoning Question: Supporting Evidence: Watson leverages multiple algorithms to perform deeper analysis

8 DeepQA Architecture Multiple interpretationsHundreds of answer sources Primary search Candidate answer generation Tens of thousands of evidence sources and scores Answer scoring Evidence retrieval Deep evidence scoring Inquiry analysis Decomposition Hypothesis generation Synthesis Hypothesis and evidence scoring Final confidence merging and ranking Q A ?! Learned models Combine and weigh evidence Natural language processing Information retrieval Knowledge representation and reasoning Deep analytics Parallel and distributed computing Machine learning

9 R&D Demonstration Commercialization Cross-industry Applications IBM Research Project (2006 – ) Jeopardy! Grand Challenge (Feb 2011) Watson for Healthcare (Aug 2011 –) Watson Ecosysteem (2014– ) Watson for Financial Services (Mar 2012 – ) Expansion

10 Challenge Drive conversion, customer satisfaction, and brand loyalty for mass marketers and luxury goods merchants such as The NorthFace, Reebok, Google, Sears, and Clorox Solution Fluid’s cognitive, expert personal shopper app powered by IBM Watson transforms consumer dialogue to make the best possible purchases Benefits Empowers consumers to shop as they choose while helping retailers foster a consumer led experience that turns shoppers into buyers Replicates the best of the in-store experience online which is like putting an expert sales associate in the hands of every consumer Expected to help consumers make the same query online in plain English to find the perfect items

11 23M Medical researchers make decisions from a repository of over 23 million articles, updated daily.

12 3 1 Show all the literature published 2. 4 5 6 7 8 9 The researcher decides to focus on the protein P53. Asks post translational modifications sites 10 Shows all the sites to focus on those sites where a phosphate could be added 11 There are proteins that might add a phosphate to P53 at Serine 15? 12 13 The researcher identifies a new protein to investigate as a target to add a protein onto P53 14 After identifying a new compound, the researcher wants to understand it’s safety profile 15 Watson identifies every similarly shaped compound and displays all major side effects Reads medical texts published and pulls out all of the relevant concepts 3 Show all the genes that are involved Provide a list of genes associated based on medical evidence The researcher Identifies a set of genes they find intriguing Watson shows all 5 genes and the supporting literature. Explore the relationship between these 5 genes and any Watson finds evidence that there are proteins that add a phosphate onto P53 Gain Awareness Watson: Transforming the Discovery of Breakthrough Treatments Increase UnderstandingClarify and Validate Watson Enhancements Deep Exploration of Domains Awareness of the Scientific Landscape Relating Domains Exploring Relationships Seeing New Possibilities Forming New Hypotheses Validating hypotheses Assessing Safety Visual map of the 5 genes and all the genes that interact with them

13 “The beauty about Watson is it’s a community computer. You could feed it information about Ebola cases, for instance, and then you could ask it questions, and it will give you a prognosis and suggest the best treatment for a particular patient based on that data.” Taiwo Otiti IBM West Africa Director

14 What will you build with Watson?


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